Encyclopedia Virginia: Crime and Criminals http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Madison_Ambrose_ca_1696-1732 Mon, 07 Oct 2019 16:50:02 EST Madison, Ambrose (ca. 1696–1732) http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Madison_Ambrose_ca_1696-1732 Ambrose Madison was a merchant and planter. The grandfather of President James Madison, he was murdered by three enslaved people shortly after moving to the estate that would become Montpelier. Born in King and Queen County, he acquired land and dealt in large sums of money from a young age. His father-in-law, a surveyor, had long been interested in the Piedmont region of Virginia and acquired land in the part of Spotsylvania County that later became Orange County. In 1723 he gave 4,675 acres to his two sons-in-law, including Madison, who sent a team of mostly enslaved people west to clear the land and plant tobacco. In the spring of 1732 Madison and his family moved to the estate, which he called Mount Pleasant. A few months later, however, he fell ill and died. Three enslaved people were convicted of poisoning him and one was executed.
Mon, 07 Oct 2019 16:50:02 EST]]>
/Lynching_in_Virginia Mon, 05 Aug 2019 16:13:45 EST <![CDATA[Lynching in Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lynching_in_Virginia Lynching involves the extralegal punishment of perceived wrongdoing by a mob. Lynching became pervasive in the American South late in the nineteenth century and, at its height, from 1880 to 1930, killed at least eighty-six men in Virginia, all but fifteen of them African Americans. Many historians believe the term can be traced to Charles Lynch, a Bedford County militia colonel during the American Revolution (1775–1783) who punished captured Loyalists outside the law. Although a regular feature of the Revolution, mob violence spiked during the 1830s in response to immigration and tensions over slavery. In the South, meanwhile, slavery had long encouraged violence against African Americans, implicating even non-slaveholding whites who were often called upon to search for escaped slaves. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), these two traditions—mob violence and violence against African Americans—joined to create an epidemic of lynchings that killed probably as many as 4,000 people from 1880 until the mid-twentieth century; the large majority of those victims were African Americans living in the South. White Virginians, who lynched the fewest number of people of any southern state, justified the practice by demonizing African Americans and arguing that the courts provided insufficient protection against their supposed criminal tendencies. Blacks and whites understood lynching as a means of enforcing white supremacy. Vocal black critics, such as the editor John Mitchell Jr., encouraged armed defense but were ignored by white lawmakers. In the 1920s, after a rash of mob violence, Virginia passed the South's first antilynching law, although no white person was ever convicted under the legislation.
Mon, 05 Aug 2019 16:13:45 EST]]>
/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 16:05:10 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Lynching Law of 1928]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 The Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, signed by Virginia governor Harry Flood Byrd Sr. on March 14, 1928, was the first measure in the nation that defined lynching specifically as a state crime. The bill's enactment marked the culmination of a campaign waged by Louis Isaac Jaffé, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, who responded more forcefully than any other white Virginian to an increase in mob violence in the mid-1920s. Jaffé's efforts, however, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1929, came to fruition only after the state's political and business leadership recognized that mob violence was a threat to their efforts to attract business and industry. Ironically, no white person was ever convicted of lynching an African American under the law.
Mon, 05 Aug 2019 16:05:10 EST]]>
/_He_Paid_an_Awful_Penalty_Charlottesville Mon, 07 Jan 2019 14:53:58 EST <![CDATA["He Paid an Awful Penalty," Charlottesville Daily Progress (July 12, 1898)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_He_Paid_an_Awful_Penalty_Charlottesville Mon, 07 Jan 2019 14:53:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_Florence_A_Bishop_to_Jonathan_A_Bishop_July_14_1898 Thu, 20 Dec 2018 08:40:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Florence A. Bishop to Jonathan A. Bishop (July 14, 1898)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Florence_A_Bishop_to_Jonathan_A_Bishop_July_14_1898 Thu, 20 Dec 2018 08:40:44 EST]]> /James_The_Lynching_of_John_Henry_1898 Wed, 19 Dec 2018 15:19:35 EST <![CDATA[Lynching of John Henry James (1898), The]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/James_The_Lynching_of_John_Henry_1898 The lynching of John Henry James, an African American man accused of raping a white woman, took place a few miles west of Charlottesville on July 12, 1898. A day earlier, Julia Hotopp reported having been assaulted after returning to the family estate of Pen Park following a morning errand in nearby Charlottesville. Within a few hours, authorities had arrested James, who, according to a newspaper account, "answer[ed] somewhat the description of Miss Hotopp's assailant." That evening a mob began to form around the jail and James was removed west to Staunton for his own safety. The next morning, July 12, James and his two guards—the Albemarle County sheriff, Lucien Watts, and the Charlottesville chief of police, Frank P. Farish—boarded the No. 8 train for Charlottesville. They did not take the express, and when the train slowed for a scheduled stop at Wood's Crossing, a mob of white men, their faces uncovered, stormed the car where James was being held. James was hanged from a nearby locust tree and his body filled with bullets. A coroner's jury later found that James "came to his death by the hands of persons unknown to the jury." In 2018, a group of Charlottesville citizens gathered soil from the site of James's lynching and carried it to the National Memorial for Peace and Justice in Montgomery, Alabama.
Wed, 19 Dec 2018 15:19:35 EST]]>
/Convict_Labor_During_the_Colonial_Period Tue, 28 Aug 2018 13:25:39 EST <![CDATA[Convict Labor during the Colonial Period]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Convict_Labor_During_the_Colonial_Period In 1615, English courts began to send convicts to the colonies as a way of alleviating England's large criminal population. This practice was unpopular in the colonies and by 1697 colonial ports refused to accept convict ships. In response, Parliament passed the Transportation Act of 1718 to create a more systematic way to export convicts. Instead of relying on merchants to make arrangements on their own to ship felons to the colonies, the British government subsidized the shipment of convicts through a network of merchants, giving a contract for the service to one individual at a time. Between 1700 and 1775, approximately 52,200 convicts sailed for the colonies, more than 20,000 of them to Virginia. Most of these convicts landed and were settled along the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers. Although many were unskilled and thus put to work in agriculture, particularly tobacco production, others with skills were sold to tradesmen, shipbuilders, and iron manufacturers, and for other similar occupations. Convict laborers could be purchased for a lower price than indentured white or enslaved African laborers, and because they already existed outside society's rules, they could be more easily exploited. Nevertheless, Virginia tried repeatedly to pass laws to prevent England from sending convicts, though those laws were overturned by the Crown. At the beginning of the American Revolution (1775–1783), colonial ports virtually ceased accepting convict ships. By 1776, when the last boatload of convicts arrived on the James River, many of the convicts had served their seven- to fourteen-year terms and returned to Great Britain, while a few who had become honest citizens moved to distant parts of the colony with the hope of blending in.
Tue, 28 Aug 2018 13:25:39 EST]]>
/Editorial_Comments_from_the_Staunton_Spectator_and_Vindicator_July_21_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:28:32 EST <![CDATA[Editorial Comments from the Staunton Spectator and Vindicator (July 21, 1898)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Editorial_Comments_from_the_Staunton_Spectator_and_Vindicator_July_21_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:28:32 EST]]> /_FROM_AN_EYE_WITNESS_Daily_Progress_July_16_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:26:44 EST <![CDATA["From an Eye Witness," Charlottesville Daily Progress (July 16, 1898)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_FROM_AN_EYE_WITNESS_Daily_Progress_July_16_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:26:44 EST]]> /_Another_Virginia_Lynching_Richmond_Planet_July_16_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:24:28 EST <![CDATA["Another Virginia Lynching," Richmond Planet (July 16, 1898)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Another_Virginia_Lynching_Richmond_Planet_July_16_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:24:28 EST]]> /_A_Dastardly_Crime_Staunton_Spectator_and_Vindicator_July_14_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:22:22 EST <![CDATA["A Dastardly Crime," Staunton Spectator and Vindicator (July 14, 1898)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Dastardly_Crime_Staunton_Spectator_and_Vindicator_July_14_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:22:22 EST]]> /_Mob_Law_CharlottesvilleDaily_Progress_July_21_1898_2 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:19:58 EST <![CDATA["Mob Law." Staunton Spectator and Vindicator (July 21, 1898)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mob_Law_CharlottesvilleDaily_Progress_July_21_1898_2 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:19:58 EST]]> /_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 Tue, 27 Mar 2018 10:11:51 EST <![CDATA[Confessions of Nat Turner, The (1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 The Confessions of Nat Turner, the leader of the late insurrection in Southampton, Va., as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray is a pamphlet published shortly after the trial and execution of Nat Turner in November 1831. The previous August, Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet, had led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, leaving fifty-five white people in Southampton County, Virginia, dead, the slaveholding South convulsed with panic, and the myth of the contented slave in tatters. His confessions, dictated from Turner's jail cell to a Southampton lawyer, have provided historians with a crucial perspective missing from an earlier planned uprising, by Gabriel (also sometimes known as Gabriel Prosser) in 1800, as well as fodder for debate over the veracity of Turner's account. Meanwhile, the book arguably is one of two American literary classics to come from the revolt, the other being The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Pulitzer Prize–winning novel by Virginia-native William Styron, published at the height of the Black Power movement in September 1967. Each of these texts has demonstrated the power of print media to shape popular perceptions of historical fact, even as each raised critical questions of accuracy, authenticity, and community control over historical interpretations of the past.
Tue, 27 Mar 2018 10:11:51 EST]]>
/Smith_Life_Last_Words_and_Dying_Speech_of_Stephen_Smith_by_Stephen_1797 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 10:14:27 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Life Last Words and Dying Speech of Stephen Smith by Stephen (1797)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Life_Last_Words_and_Dying_Speech_of_Stephen_Smith_by_Stephen_1797 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 10:14:27 EST]]> /Virginia_Tech_Shootings Wed, 03 Jan 2018 15:12:08 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Tech Shootings]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Tech_Shootings On April 16, 2007, Seung-Hui Cho, a senior at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, also known as Virginia Tech, in Blacksburg, shot and killed twenty-seven students and five faculty members, and injured more than seventeen others before killing himself. At the time it was the largest mass shooting in contemporary American history perpetrated by a single gunman. Cho was born in South Korea and immigrated to the United States with his family, which settled in Centreville. He had a history of emotional and mental health problems dating to early childhood, but his parents said they were unaware that serious troubles had begun at Virginia Tech. A series of disturbing incidents led to a 2005 hearing in which he was ordered to outpatient treatment, which he never received. Despite this and other warning signs, there was no concerted follow-up by campus or mental health authorities as Cho's condition deteriorated and he plotted mass murder. The attacks raised many questions associated with gun violence, from missed mental health signals to the availability of weapons and campus safety. Governor Timothy M. Kaine immediately appointed a panel to review the shootings and response, and make recommendations by the beginning of the 2007–2008 school year. The tragedy led to lasting reforms in how campuses in Virginia and across the nation regarded safety issues. But advocates for gun safety and those seeking a sustained focus on improving mental health services regard those efforts as having come up short. Many family and community members expressed continued disappointment with what they perceived to be the university's lack of accountability. All of the injured students, however, returned to graduate.
Wed, 03 Jan 2018 15:12:08 EST]]>
/Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Mon, 18 Dec 2017 13:58:52 EST <![CDATA[Wythe, George (1726 or 1727–1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 George Wythe was a member of the House of Burgesses (1754–1755, 1758, 1761–1766) and the Conventions of 1776, 1787, 1788, a member of the Second Continental Congress during the American Revolution (1775–1783), Speaker of the House of Delegates (1777–1778), and judge of the High Court of Chancery (1778–1806). His signature is first among Virginians on the Declaration of Independence. Born in Elizabeth City County, Wythe was educated by his mother and read the law under the guidance of an uncle, eventually building a lucrative practice in Williamsburg, where he mentored a young Thomas Jefferson. He supported independence during the Revolution and served on a General Assembly committee with Jefferson and others charged with revising Virginia's laws. In 1778, the assembly elected Wythe to serve on the newly created High Court of Chancery, where he stayed the rest of his life, even after receiving offers of seats on higher courts. He twice used his position to rule that slavery was unconstitutional, including in Pleasants v. Pleasants (1799), but was twice overruled by the Court of Appeals. He later freed his own slaves. From 1780 to 1789 he taught law at the College of William and Mary, becoming the first law professor at any American university; John Marshall was one of his students. He served briefly in the U.S. Constitutional Convention and then appealed for its ratification in Virginia. Wythe died in Richmond in 1806, likely poisoned by his great-nephew, George Wythe Sweeney Jr.
Mon, 18 Dec 2017 13:58:52 EST]]>
/Wythe_The_Death_of_George_1806 Thu, 30 Nov 2017 11:07:25 EST <![CDATA[Wythe, The Death of George (1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_The_Death_of_George_1806 George Wythe, a prominent judge and professor who signed the Declaration of Independence, died in Richmond on June 8, 1806. He had become violently ill after eating breakfast on May 25 with Lydia Broadnax and Michael Brown, both free African Americans. On May 27, George Wythe Sweeney Jr., Wythe's great-nephew, attempted to cash a check bearing Wythe's forged signature and was arrested soon after. Brown died on June 1, and by that time Wythe had come to believe that he, Brown, and Broadnax had been poisoned by Sweeney. Before dying he amended his will to disinherit Sweeney. The Richmond Hustings Court found sufficient evidence against Sweeney to refer forgery and murder charges to the District Court, where Sweeney was tried in September. Defended by two friends of George Wythe, including Edmund Randolph, he was acquitted of murder and found guilty on two of four counts of forgery. Sweeney's prison sentence was set aside, however, and he soon left the state. Many in Richmond and across the country had come to assume that Sweeney was guilty of murder and the trial garnered significant press attention. While the Richmond Enquirer claimed that the verdict was the result of Virginia's prohibition of African American testimony against white defendants, later historians have pointed to the purely circumstantial nature of the evidence.
Thu, 30 Nov 2017 11:07:25 EST]]>
/Shooting_Victims_of_the_Virginia_Tech_Mass_2007 Mon, 06 Nov 2017 16:12:15 EST <![CDATA[Shooting, Victims of the Virginia Tech Mass (2007)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shooting_Victims_of_the_Virginia_Tech_Mass_2007 Mon, 06 Nov 2017 16:12:15 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to punish certain thefts and forgeries" (December 31, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST]]> /_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST <![CDATA["The Negro and the Criminal Law"; chapter 6 of The Plantation Negro as Freeman by Philip Alexander Bruce (1889)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST]]> /_quot_The_Perpetuation_of_Our_Political_Institutions_quot_by_Abraham_Lincoln_January_27_1838 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:30:47 EST <![CDATA["The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions" by Abraham Lincoln (January 27, 1838)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Perpetuation_of_Our_Political_Institutions_quot_by_Abraham_Lincoln_January_27_1838 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:30:47 EST]]> /Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST <![CDATA[Witchcraft in Colonial Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Witchcraft was a genuine concern for colonial Virginians. The colony's English settlers brought with them a strong belief in the devil's power and his presence in the New World. This belief was first manifested in the Jamestown colonists' early perceptions of the Virginia Indians, whom they believed to be devil worshippers. After 1622, some colonists began to accuse one another of practicing witchcraft. Though witchcraft cases in Virginia were less common and the sentences less severe than the more famous witch trials of Salem, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, evidence exists that about two dozen such trials took place in Virginia between 1626 and 1730. They ranged from civil defamation suits to criminal accusations. The most famous of these was the trial of Grace Sherwood of Princess Anne County, in which the judges determined her guilt by administering a water test. Records indicate that the last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in Virginia in 1730; five years later, Parliament repealed the Witchcraft Act of 1604, the statute under which British American colonists prosecuted accused witches. Since then, witchcraft has been largely forgotten as an aspect of life in colonial Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST]]>
/Reports_on_the_Death_of_George_Wythe_Poulson_s_American_Daily_Advertiser_June_17_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:15:49 EST <![CDATA[Reports on the Death of George Wythe, Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (June 17, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Reports_on_the_Death_of_George_Wythe_Poulson_s_American_Daily_Advertiser_June_17_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:15:49 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_Wirt_to_Elizabeth_Gamble_Wirt_July_13_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:01:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Wirt to Elizabeth Gamble Wirt (July 13, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Wirt_to_Elizabeth_Gamble_Wirt_July_13_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:01:12 EST]]> /Southern_Horrors_Lynch_Law_in_All_Its_Phases_by_Ida_B_Wells_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:13:35 EST <![CDATA[Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases by Ida B. Wells (1892)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Southern_Horrors_Lynch_Law_in_All_Its_Phases_by_Ida_B_Wells_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:13:35 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_Again_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_19_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:12:38 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law, Again," Richmond Dispatch (February 19, 1880)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_Again_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_19_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:12:38 EST]]> /_quot_Page_Wallace_apos_s_Crime_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_3_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:47 EST <![CDATA["Page Wallace's Crime," Richmond Dispatch (February 3, 1880)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Page_Wallace_apos_s_Crime_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_3_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:47 EST]]> /_quot_From_the_Vicksburg_Register_quot_The_Floridian_July_25_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:00 EST <![CDATA["From the Vicksburg Register," The Floridian (July 25, 1835)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_From_the_Vicksburg_Register_quot_The_Floridian_July_25_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:00 EST]]> /_quot_Richlands_apos_Lynching_quot_Clinch_Valley_News_February_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:10:00 EST <![CDATA["Richlands' Lynching," Clinch Valley News (February 3, 1893)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Richlands_apos_Lynching_quot_Clinch_Valley_News_February_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:10:00 EST]]> /U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST <![CDATA[U.S. Senate Resolution 39 (June 13, 2005)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST]]> /Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Mob, New-York Spectator (August 20, 1835)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST]]> /_quot_Peace_and_Quiet_quot_Roanoke_Times_September_22_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:06:01 EST <![CDATA["Peace and Quiet," Roanoke Times (September 22, 1893)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Peace_and_Quiet_quot_Roanoke_Times_September_22_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:06:01 EST]]> /_quot_The_Execution_Yesterday_quot_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_October_22_1864 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:05:01 EST <![CDATA["The Execution Yesterday," Richmond Daily Dispatch (October 22, 1864)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Execution_Yesterday_quot_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_October_22_1864 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:05:01 EST]]> /_quot_Lynched_quot_Staunton_Spectator_October_3_1882 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:04:03 EST <![CDATA["Lynched!," Staunton Spectator (October 3, 1882)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynched_quot_Staunton_Spectator_October_3_1882 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:04:03 EST]]> /_quot_Rev_Dr_Hatcher_apos_s_Surprising_Assertions_quot_Richmond_Planet_June_23_1894 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:02:59 EST <![CDATA["Rev. Dr. Hatcher's Surprising Assertions," Richmond Planet (June 23, 1894)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Rev_Dr_Hatcher_apos_s_Surprising_Assertions_quot_Richmond_Planet_June_23_1894 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:02:59 EST]]> /_quot_Judge_Lynch_and_His_Victims_quot_Richmond_Planet_January_18_1902 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:01:17 EST <![CDATA["Judge Lynch and His Victims," Richmond Planet (January 18, 1902)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Judge_Lynch_and_His_Victims_quot_Richmond_Planet_January_18_1902 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:01:17 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_quot_excerpt_from_Governor_Philip_W_McKinney_apos_s_Address_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:57 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law"; excerpt from Governor Philip W. McKinney's Address to the General Assembly (December 6, 1893)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_quot_excerpt_from_Governor_Philip_W_McKinney_apos_s_Address_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:57 EST]]> /_quot_Horrible_Tragedy_quot_Raleigh_Register_and_North-Carolina_Gazette_May_24_1836 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:00 EST <![CDATA["Horrible Tragedy," Raleigh Register and North-Carolina Gazette (May 24, 1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Horrible_Tragedy_quot_Raleigh_Register_and_North-Carolina_Gazette_May_24_1836 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:00 EST]]> /_quot_Hanged_by_a_Mob_quot_Alexandria_Gazette_April_23_1897 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:57:39 EST <![CDATA["Hanged by a Mob," Alexandria Gazette (April 23, 1897)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Hanged_by_a_Mob_quot_Alexandria_Gazette_April_23_1897 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:57:39 EST]]> /_quot_The_Lynchers_Were_Convicted_quot_Richmond_Planet_July_8_1899 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:56:43 EST <![CDATA["The Lynchers Were Convicted," Richmond Planet (July 8, 1899)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Lynchers_Were_Convicted_quot_Richmond_Planet_July_8_1899 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:56:43 EST]]> /_quot_Viewed_by_a_Thousand_People_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_13_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:55:21 EST <![CDATA["Viewed by a Thousand People," Roanoke Times (February 13, 1892)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Viewed_by_a_Thousand_People_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_13_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:55:21 EST]]> /_quot_Judge_Lynch_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_12_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:53:57 EST <![CDATA["Judge Lynch!," Roanoke Times (February 12, 1892)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Judge_Lynch_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_12_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:53:57 EST]]> /_quot_The_Police_Force_Wakes_Up_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_11_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:52:53 EST <![CDATA["The Police Force Wakes Up," Roanoke Times (February 11, 1892)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Police_Force_Wakes_Up_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_11_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:52:53 EST]]> /_quot_Brutal_Attempt_of_a_Negro_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_10_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST <![CDATA["Brutal Attempt of a Negro," Roanoke Times (February 10, 1892)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Brutal_Attempt_of_a_Negro_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_10_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_and_Barbarism_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_August_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:50:49 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law and Barbarism," Richmond Dispatch (August 3, 1893)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_and_Barbarism_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_August_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:50:49 EST]]> /_quot_The_Clifton_Forge_Tragedy_quot_Roanoke_Times_October_20_1891 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:49:43 EST <![CDATA["The Clifton Forge Tragedy," Roanoke Times (October 20, 1891)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Clifton_Forge_Tragedy_quot_Roanoke_Times_October_20_1891 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:49:43 EST]]> /_They_Hanged_Him_Richmond_Dispatch_November_9_1889 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:48:08 EST <![CDATA["They Hanged Him," Richmond Dispatch (November 9, 1889)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_They_Hanged_Him_Richmond_Dispatch_November_9_1889 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:48:08 EST]]> /Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John A. G. (1802–1840)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 John A. G. Davis was a law professor at the University of Virginia who was murdered there by a student. Born in Middlesex County, Davis attended the College of William and Mary and then, after marrying a grandniece of Thomas Jefferson, the recently founded University of Virginia. He established a law practice in Albemarle County, helped found a newspaper, and then, in 1830, joined the University of Virginia's faculty as a professor of law. In his publications, Davis defended states' rights and limited government, supporting nullification in 1832. A popular but strict professor, he used his role as faculty chairman in 1836 to help expel about seventy student-militia members, leading to a riot. Four years later, on the anniversary of that riot, two students in masks shot off their weapons outside Davis's residence, Pavilion X. When Davis confronted them, one of the students, Joseph G. Semmes, shot the professor dead. Semmes fled the state and later committed suicide. Davis died two days later, and his murder helped finally to calm years of misbehavior among the university's students.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST]]>
/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Callender, James Thomson (1757 or 1758–1803)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 James Thomson Callender was a partisan journalist known for attacking Federalists but also his one-time Republican ally, Thomas Jefferson. Born in Scotland, Callender was a Scottish nationalist who published pamphlets critical of the British government. When a warrant was issued for his arrest, he fled first to Ireland and then, in 1793, to Philadelphia. There he wrote newspaper items critical of the administrations of George Washington and John Adams and a pamphlet that exposed an extramarital affair by Alexander Hamilton. After the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, Callender, who had moved to Richmond by this time, published another pamphlet critical of President Adams. In the spring of 1800 he was tried and convicted of sedition in Richmond and served nine months in jail. When Jefferson was elected president in 1801, Callender expected to be rewarded with a political position. When he was not, he turned on his former ally, accusing the president of having fathered children by his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Callender purchased part ownership of the Richmond Recorder newspaper, but quit after quarrels with his coeditor. He accidentally drowned in the James River in 1803.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST]]>
/Military_Executions_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:54:22 EST <![CDATA[Military Executions during the Civil War]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Military_Executions_During_the_Civil_War More soldiers were executed during the American Civil War (1861–1865) than in all other American wars combined. Approximately 500 men, representing both North and South, were shot or hanged during the four-year conflict, two-thirds of them for desertion. The Confederate Articles of War (1861) specified that "all officers and soldiers who have received pay, or have been duly enlisted in the services of the Confederate States, and shall be convicted of having deserted the same, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as, by sentence of a court-martial, shall be inflicted." The General Orders of the War Department (1861, 1862, 1863) directed that those men convicted of desertion were "to be shot to death with musketry, at such time and place as the commanding General may direct."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:54:22 EST]]>
/Chapter_28_quot_Chancellor_Wythe_apos_s_Death_quot_an_excerpt_from_The_Two_Parsons_by_George_Wythe_Munford_1884 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 12:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 28: "Chancellor Wythe's Death"; an excerpt from The Two Parsons by George Wythe Munford (1884)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_28_quot_Chancellor_Wythe_apos_s_Death_quot_an_excerpt_from_The_Two_Parsons_by_George_Wythe_Munford_1884 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 12:58:17 EST]]> /Allen_Floyd_1856-1913 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:32:45 EST <![CDATA[Allen, Floyd (1856–1913)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_Floyd_1856-1913 Floyd Allen was the central figure in one of the most sensational and bizarre incidents in Virginia criminal and legal history, the so-called Hillsville Massacre. In the great Carroll County shootout in Hillsville on March 14, 1912, a judge, a sheriff, a commonwealth's attorney, a juror, and a spectator were all killed by shots fired by Allen and others after Allen was convicted of assault. Allen and several members of his family immediately fled the courtroom but were later captured and convicted of murder. Allen and his youngest son, Claude Swanson Allen, were both executed for their crimes.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:32:45 EST]]>
/_quot_Memoir_of_the_Author_quot_from_Decisions_of_Cases_in_Virginia_by_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_by_Benjamin_Blake_Minor_1852 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:35:01 EST <![CDATA["Memoir of the Author," from Decisions of Cases in Virginia by the High Court of Chancery by Benjamin Blake Minor (1852)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Memoir_of_the_Author_quot_from_Decisions_of_Cases_in_Virginia_by_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_by_Benjamin_Blake_Minor_1852 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:35:01 EST]]> /Trial_of_George_Wythe_Sweeney_June_2_and_23_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:33:23 EST <![CDATA[Trial of George Wythe Sweeney (June 2 and 23, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trial_of_George_Wythe_Sweeney_June_2_and_23_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:33:23 EST]]> /_quot_Oration_Pronounced_at_the_Funeral_of_George_Wythe_quot_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:28:30 EST <![CDATA["Oration Pronounced at the Funeral of George Wythe" (1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Oration_Pronounced_at_the_Funeral_of_George_Wythe_quot_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:28:30 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_December_10_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:47:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (December 10, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_December_10_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:47:34 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_December_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:12:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (December 4, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_December_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:12:11 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_November_21_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (November 21, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_November_21_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:05:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_July_17_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:58:16 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (July 17, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_July_17_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:58:16 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_12_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:49:50 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (July 12, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_12_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:49:50 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_29_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:40:51 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 29, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_29_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:40:51 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_22_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:26:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (June 22, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_22_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:26:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_14_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:19:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (June 14, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_14_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:19:00 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:17:41 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (June 19, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:17:41 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:16:04 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 19, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:16:04 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_8_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:36:59 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 8, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_8_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:36:59 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:23:22 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 4, 1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:23:22 EST]]> /_An_act_for_the_reliefe_of_such_loyall_persons_as_have_suffered_losse_by_the_late_rebels_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 14:53:27 EST <![CDATA[An act for the releife of such loyall persons as have suffered losse by the late rebels (1677)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_the_reliefe_of_such_loyall_persons_as_have_suffered_losse_by_the_late_rebels_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 14:53:27 EST]]> /The_Humble_Petition_of_Sarah_Drummond_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 11:18:09 EST <![CDATA[The Humble Petition of Sarah Drummond (1677)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Humble_Petition_of_Sarah_Drummond_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 11:18:09 EST]]> /Cornish_Richard_alias_Richard_Williams_d_after_January_3_1625 Tue, 27 May 2014 15:02:52 EST <![CDATA[Cornish, Richard alias Richard Williams (d. after January 3, 1625)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cornish_Richard_alias_Richard_Williams_d_after_January_3_1625 Tue, 27 May 2014 15:02:52 EST]]> /_Women_Causing_Scandalous_Suites_to_be_Ducked_1662 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:18:51 EST <![CDATA["Women Causing Scandalous Suites to be Ducked" (1662)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_Causing_Scandalous_Suites_to_be_Ducked_1662 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:18:51 EST]]> /Billy_fl_1770s-1780s Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:26:46 EST <![CDATA[Billy (fl. 1770s–1780s)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Billy_fl_1770s-1780s Billy was an enslaved African American who became a principal in a court case during the American Revolution (1775–1783). In 1781, the Prince William County Court indicted him for waging war against the state from a British armed ship. Despite his testimony that he had been forced to board the vessel against his will and had never taken up arms on behalf of the British, the court convicted Billy of treason and sentenced him to be hanged. Two dissenting judges argued to Governor Thomas Jefferson that a slave, being a noncitizen, could not commit treason. Billy received a gubernatorial reprieve, and the General Assembly pardoned him on June 14, 1781. What happened to him after that is not known. Billy made his mark on history because his trial forced white leaders to confront the logic of slavery. Excluded from the protections conferred by citizenship, he was ultimately shielded from execution because Virginia's law of treason could not logically apply to him.
Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:26:46 EST]]>
/The_Case_of_Wahanganoche_an_excerpt_from_the_Journals_of_the_House_of_Burgesses_of_Virginia_1662 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:22:24 EST <![CDATA[The Case of Wahanganoche; an excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia (1662)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Case_of_Wahanganoche_an_excerpt_from_the_Journals_of_the_House_of_Burgesses_of_Virginia_1662 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:22:24 EST]]>