Encyclopedia Virginia: Science http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Virginia_The_Influenza_Pandemic_in_1918-1919 Mon, 22 Apr 2019 13:57:29 EST Influenza Pandemic in Virginia, The (1918–1919) http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_The_Influenza_Pandemic_in_1918-1919 In 1918–1919 a new and deadly type of influenza spread across the United States and around the world. It raged through Virginia from the autumn of 1918 through the spring of 1919, spreading through cities, small towns, isolated rural areas, and military camps. By the time it waned, the epidemic had claimed the lives of at least 16,000 Virginians. The virus, which probably originated in Kansas, was brought to Virginia by military personnel arriving in the state to take ships to Europe, where World War I (1914–1918) was being fought. From bases such as Camp Lee, near Petersburg, it easily jumped to cities and their civilian populations, causing high fever, nausea, and aches, and often leading to severe pneumonia. Authorities prohibited public gatherings and the Red Cross distributed cloth masks, but viral infections were unknown to medical science at the time and are often untreatable regardless. Doctors and nurses were driven to exhaustion caring for their patients, while in rural areas without access to hospitals the weight of coping fell on family members. Federal and state governments, including in Virginia, generally downplayed the severity of the epidemic so as not to cause panic or a downturn in wartime morale. In Richmond, the city turned an unused high school into a whites-only emergency hospital and later opened one for African Americans. In Charlottesville the schools closed. Because of the Great Depression and World War II (1939–1945), the epidemic faded from public memory until early in the twenty-first century.
Mon, 22 Apr 2019 13:57:29 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Benjamin_Banneker_to_Thomas_Jefferson_August_19_1791 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 14:13:27 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Benjamin Banneker to Thomas Jefferson (August 19, 1791)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Benjamin_Banneker_to_Thomas_Jefferson_August_19_1791 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 14:13:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Banneker_August_30_1791 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 16:48:15 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Banneker (August 30, 1791)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Banneker_August_30_1791 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 16:48:15 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Clayton_John_1656_or_1657-1725 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:42:16 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (1656 or 1657–1725)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_1656_or_1657-1725 John Clayton conducted key observations of Virginia's flora and fauna while helping secure the Church of England's authority. The Oxford graduate and clergy member left England to become rector of Jamestown's James City Parish. Clayton, known for his scientific observations, took an interest in the natural world of Virginia and recorded his observations of numerous natural phenomena. John Brickell later plagiarized his works when writing his Natural History of North-Carolina (1737). Clayton, known for his intellectual sermons, became Virginia's commissary, or first personal representative of the bishop of London. From his position, he aggressively converted dissenters. Clayton returned to England in 1686.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:42:16 EST]]>
/Emmet_John_Patten_1796-1842 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 16:14:00 EST <![CDATA[Emmet, John Patten (1796–1842)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Emmet_John_Patten_1796-1842 John Patten Emmet was a chemistry professor at the University of Virginia from 1825 until his death in 1842. Born in Ireland, he was the nephew of the Irish nationalist Robert Emmet. He came to the United States with his family in 1805 and attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. After studying medicine and developing an interest in chemistry, Emmet accepted a faculty position at the University of Virginia as chair of the School of Natural History. He appeared to thrive in Charlottesville, even in the midst of student unrest that forced a pair of colleagues to resign, and purchased land on which he built a house, Morea, of his own design. There he planted gardens and experimented with silkworm cultivation. Emmet's health had always been frail, however, dating back to childhood bouts with smallpox, measles, and whooping cough. In 1842, ill health forced him to take a leave of absence from which he never returned. He died that year at the New York home of one of his brothers.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 16:14:00 EST]]>
/Hariot_Thomas_ca_1560-1621 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 15:17:55 EST <![CDATA[Hariot, Thomas (ca. 1560–1621)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hariot_Thomas_ca_1560-1621 Thomas Hariot (often spelled Harriot) was an English mathematician, astronomer, linguist, and experimental scientist. During the 1580s, he served as Sir Walter Raleigh's primary assistant in planning and attempting to establish the English colonies on Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day North Carolina. He taught Raleigh's sea captains to sail the Atlantic Ocean using sophisticated navigational methods not well understood in England at the time. He also learned the Algonquian language from two Virginia Indians, Wanchese and Manteo. In 1585, Hariot joined the expedition to Roanoke, which failed and returned to England the next year. During his stay in America, Hariot helped to explore the present-day Outer Banks region and, farther north, the Chesapeake Bay. He also collaborated with the artist John White in producing several maps notable at the time for their accuracy. Although Hariot left extensive papers, the only work published during his lifetime was A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia, which evaluated the economic potential of Virginia. The report appeared most impressively in Theodor de Bry's 1590 edition that included etchings based on the White-Hariot maps and White's watercolors of Indian life. After a brief imprisonment in connection to the Gunpowder Plot (1605), Hariot calculated the orbit of Halley's Comet, sketched and mapped the moon, and observed sunspots. He died in 1621.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 15:17:55 EST]]>
/The_Ethics_of_Eugenics_Excerpts_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sEugenical_Sterilization_1929 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:45:59 EST <![CDATA[The Ethics of Eugenics; an excerpt from Eugenical Sterilization (1929)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Ethics_of_Eugenics_Excerpts_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sEugenical_Sterilization_1929 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:45:59 EST]]> /Justifying_Eugenics_Excerpts_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sThe_Biological_Relationship_of_Eugenics_to_the_Development_of_the_Human_Race_1930 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:41:10 EST <![CDATA[Justifying Eugenics; an excerpt from The Biological Relationship of Eugenics to the Development of the Human Race by John H. Bell (1929)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Justifying_Eugenics_Excerpts_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sThe_Biological_Relationship_of_Eugenics_to_the_Development_of_the_Human_Race_1930 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:41:10 EST]]> /Report_on_Sterilization_an_Excerpt_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sEugenic_Control_and_its_Relationship_to_the_Science_of_Life_and_Reproduction_1931 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:15:27 EST <![CDATA[Report on Sterilization; an excerpt from John H. Bell's Eugenic Control and its Relationship to the Science of Life and Reproduction (1931)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Report_on_Sterilization_an_Excerpt_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sEugenic_Control_and_its_Relationship_to_the_Science_of_Life_and_Reproduction_1931 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:15:27 EST]]> /Clayton_John_1695-1773 Thu, 05 Sep 2013 09:12:18 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (1695–1773)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_1695-1773 John Clayton was a botanist and the clerk of Gloucester County (ca. 1720–1773). Born and educated in England, he first appears in colonial records in 1720 as the Gloucester County clerk, a position he held for more than fifty years. He owned a tobacco plantation and more than thirty slaves, and by 1735 was regularly providing naturalists such as Mark Catesby and John Frederick Gronovius with botanical specimens to be identified. Clayton himself identified and was the first to name the genus Agastache, a group of perennial, flowering herbs. In 1737, the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus named the wildflowers of the genus Claytonia in Clayton's honor. During this same time period, Clayton compiled for Gronovius a Catalogue of Herbs, Fruits, and Trees Native to Virginia, which Gronovius translated into Latin and published as Flora Virginica, without Clayton's permission, in 1739. This and subsequent editions were the first, and until the mid-twentieth century, the only compilations of Virginia's native plants. Clayton was elected to the American Philosophical Society (1743), the Swedish Royal Academy of Science (1747), and the Virginian Society for the Promotion of Usefull Knowledge (1773), of which he was the first president. He died that same year.
Thu, 05 Sep 2013 09:12:18 EST]]>
/Chaloner_John_Armstrong_1862-1935 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:52:04 EST <![CDATA[Chaloner, John Armstrong (1862–1935)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chaloner_John_Armstrong_1862-1935 John Armstrong Chaloner was a celebrity and writer known for coining the catchphrase "Who's looney now?" after his personal trials with psychiatric experimentation and treatment. When his wealthy family learned that he believed he possessed a new sense, which he called the "X-Faculty," they had him committed to a psychiatric hospital in New York in 1897; a court later declared him insane and ruled he be permanently institutionalized. He escaped the institution and was ultimately deemed sane more than twenty years later. In the meantime, he published about two dozen books on his experiments with psychotherapy and his stay in the insane asylum. His books, such as The Lunacy Law of the World (1906), often attacked the rising power of psychiatric medicine, and his case was controversial particularly among the nation's leading psychologists, who disagreed about whether he was rational or paranoid. He married and divorced the novelist Amélie Rives, but lived near her Albemarle County home for much of his life.
Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:52:04 EST]]>
/John_Banister_1649_or_1650-1692 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 12:41:41 EST <![CDATA[Banister, John (1649 or 1650–1692)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Banister_1649_or_1650-1692 John Banister was a naturalist and Anglican minister in the Virginia colony. Born in England, he became interested in North American plants while studying at the University of Oxford. After arriving in Virginia in 1679, he took charge of Bristol Parish, near the mouth of the Appomattox River. Exploring as far west as the Virginia foothills, Banister collected specimens of the colony's flora and fauna, many of which he sent back to England. He was not able to complete his own comprehensive natural history of Virginia, but his numerous lists, notes, and drawings were used by European naturalists in their published works on North American plants and animals. Other naturalists named plants for Banister, and William Houstoun gave the name Banisteria to a class of tropical and subtropical viny plants. In his Species Plantanum (1753), Carolus Linnaeus cited species and specimens that Banister had procured and described. While on a collecting expedition Banister was accidentally killed by one of his traveling companions sometime between May 12 and May 16, 1692.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 12:41:41 EST]]>
/Hemings-Jefferson_DNA_an_excerpt_from_Jefferson_Fathered_Slave_s_Last_Child_by_Eugene_A_Foster_et_al_November_5_1998 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:03:58 EST <![CDATA[Hemings-Jefferson DNA; an excerpt from "Jefferson Fathered Slave's Last Child" by Eugene A. Foster, et al. (November 5, 1998)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hemings-Jefferson_DNA_an_excerpt_from_Jefferson_Fathered_Slave_s_Last_Child_by_Eugene_A_Foster_et_al_November_5_1998 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:03:58 EST]]>