Encyclopedia Virginia: Religion http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Dixon_George_L_1818-1907 Wed, 23 Oct 2019 17:46:45 EST Dixon, George L. (1818–1907) http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dixon_George_L_1818-1907 George Lewis Dixon was a Baptist minister in the Fredericksburg area. Born with slave status, he and his family fled from Fredericksburg to Washington, D.C., during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war ended, Dixon returned to Fredericksburg, where he was elected pastor of Shiloh Baptist Church and was active in the local Republican Party. Dixon was representative of a unique generation of African American leaders, largely self-educated preachers, who inspired their communities to rebuild and expand antebellum churches and adapt them to the changing needs of their communities in a post-slavery society. He died in 1907.
Wed, 23 Oct 2019 17:46:45 EST]]>
/Virginia_s_First_Africans Tue, 08 Oct 2019 14:36:00 EST <![CDATA[Africans, Virginia's First]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_s_First_Africans Virginia's first Africans arrived at Point Comfort, on the James River, late in August 1619. There, "20. and odd Negroes" or more from the English ship White Lion were sold in exchange for food and some were transported to Jamestown, where they were sold again. Three or four days later another English ship, the Treasurer, arrived in Virginia, where its captain sold two or three additional Africans. Historians have long believed these Africans to have come to Virginia from the Caribbean, but Spanish records suggest they had been captured in a Spanish-controlled area of West Central Africa. They probably were Kimbundu-speaking people, and many of them may have had at least some knowledge of Catholicism. While aboard the São João Bautista bound for Mexico, they were stolen by the White Lion and the Treasurer. Once in Virginia, they were dispersed throughout the colony. The number of Africans in Virginia increased to thirty-two by 1620, but then dropped sharply by 1624, likely because of the effects of disease and perhaps because of the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). Evidence suggests that many were baptized and took Christian names, and some, like Anthony and Mary Johnson, won their freedom and bought land. In 1628, after a shipload of about 100 Angolans was sold in Virginia, the number of Africans in the colony rose dramatically.
Tue, 08 Oct 2019 14:36:00 EST]]>
/Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The Tue, 18 Jun 2019 14:59:02 EST <![CDATA[Great Awakening in Virginia, The]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The The Great Awakening was the most significant cultural upheaval in colonial America. The term refers to a series of religious revivals that began early in the eighteenth century and led, eventually, to the disestablishment of the Church of England as the official church during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Triggered by the preaching of the Anglican itinerant George Whitefield, the Great Awakening began in New England and the Middle Colonies, where thousands converted to an evangelical faith centered on the experience of the "new birth" of salvation. It also featured intense, emotional scenes of penitential sinners and new converts being filled, as they saw it, with the Holy Spirit, with associated outcries, visions, dreams, and spirit journeys. The Great Awakening's effects in Virginia developed slowly, beginning early in the 1740s. By the 1760s, evangelical Presbyterians and Baptists were making major inroads among Virginians, and challenging the established church in the colony. Perhaps the most notable historical result of the Great Awakening in Virginia was the end of the state's establishment of religion, which was ultimately accomplished through the Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786). The cause of religious freedom was championed politically by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, but it depended on the popular support of legions of evangelicals, especially Baptists.
Tue, 18 Jun 2019 14:59:02 EST]]>
/Atkinson_W_1796-1849 Wed, 22 May 2019 15:11:19 EST <![CDATA[Atkinson, W. (1796–1849)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atkinson_W_1796-1849 Wed, 22 May 2019 15:11:19 EST]]> /Bracken_John_bap_1747-1818 Thu, 16 May 2019 17:31:32 EST <![CDATA[Bracken, John (bap. 1747–1818)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bracken_John_bap_1747-1818 Thu, 16 May 2019 17:31:32 EST]]> /Fithian_Philip_Vickers_1747-1776 Thu, 02 May 2019 17:16:51 EST <![CDATA[Fithian, Philip Vickers (1747–1776)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fithian_Philip_Vickers_1747-1776 Philip Vickers Fithian tutored the children of Robert Carter III at his Westmoreland County mansion and is best known for the diary he kept detailing life in colonial Virginia. Born in New Jersey, he experienced a religious conversion in 1766, after which he attended a Presbyterian academy and college, preparing for the ministry. While tutoring the Carter children, he kept an account of plantation life in Virginia on the eve of the American Revolution (1775–1783), one that provided insights on slavery, religion, and society and has long been consulted and cited by historians. Fithian returned home to New Jersey after a year and for a year traveled the Pennsylvania and Virginia backcountry as a Presbyterian missionary, keeping a journal during this time as well. In June 1776 he was appointed chaplain of a battalion of New Jersey infantry died in camp later that year in New York.
Thu, 02 May 2019 17:16:51 EST]]>
/Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Tue, 16 Apr 2019 14:31:25 EST <![CDATA[Black Baptists in Virginia (1865–1902)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Most religious African Americans after the American Civil War (1861–1865) belonged to Baptist churches. Even prior to the abolition of slavery, Baptists, black and white, came closer to the principle of the equality of all believers than many other religious bodies. Even white Baptists recognized in principle the idea that African Americans were full members of the church, though whites generally did not consent to the ordination of their black counterparts. Once free, African American Baptists became even more assertive in forming churches and organizing independent local and state associations. These groups gave a platform to African American views of the world, from the theological to the political, and an avenue by which connections could be made both domestically and abroad. For instance, black Baptists in Virginia sought educational and humanitarian support from white Baptists in the North while at the same time, in part through the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, created in 1880, establishing missions in West Africa. This strategy eventually caused a rift between those black Baptists (so-called independents) who balked at asking white Baptists for help, and others (so-called cooperationists) who argued that they should rise above racial differences. Taking advantage of their numbers and influence, Baptist groups also lobbied hard for black civil rights. And for a time black men voted and regularly held office in Virginia. But by 1902, and the ratification of a new state constitution, such rights were effectively eliminated. In the difficult years to come, Virginia's black Baptists relied on their now well-established institutions to pursue their social and political interests.
Tue, 16 Apr 2019 14:31:25 EST]]>
/Exploration_The_Age_of Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:39:32 EST <![CDATA[Exploration, The Age of]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Exploration_The_Age_of The Age of Exploration began in earnest with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and ended, at least where present-day Virginians are concerned, with the founding of Jamestown in 1607. When Columbus stumbled into two unknown continents, he had been looking for a quick route to the Far East, and, for decades to come, explorers focused on discovering that passage almost as much as they did on exploiting the New World. Early in the sixteenth century, the Spaniards conquered three major civilizations in Central and South America, and in the process unleashed a devastating biological exchange that killed an estimated 95 percent of the area's inhabitants between 1492 and 1650. The Spanish then turned their sights north, planting short-lived colonies on the shores of present-day Georgia and South Carolina and pursuing what came to be known as the Chicora Legend: the belief that the best land, as well as a passage to China, could be found in the area of the Chesapeake Bay. While the French and later the English explored the far northern latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean, the Spanish slowly worked their way up the coast from present-day Florida, a quest that ended only when a Virginia Indian called Don Luís (Paquiquineo) led a fatal attack on a group of Jesuit missionaries in 1571. This defeat helped make room for the English, whose failed colonies at Roanoke in 1585 and 1587 led, finally, to the permanent settlement at Jamestown.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:39:32 EST]]>
/Segura_Juan_Baptista_de_1529-1571 Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:31:26 EST <![CDATA[Segura, Juan Baptista de (1529–1571)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Segura_Juan_Baptista_de_1529-1571 Juan Baptista de Segura was a priest and vice-provincial of the Jesuits in the Spanish province of La Florida. In 1570 he led a mission to the Chesapeake Bay and was killed the next year in an ambush led by Don Luís de Velasco (formerly Paquiquineo), a Virginia Indian who had converted to Christianity. Born in Toledo and educated at a time when Spanish clerics vigorously debated the best way of converting American Indians, Segura joined the Society of Jesus in 1556 and was ordained a priest the following year. Ten years after that he was named vice-provincial of the Jesuits in La Florida. An intellectual and idealist, Segura was also an indecisive leader who advised his superior that the Jesuits should abandon La Florida and then, just a few months later, organized a mission to the Chesapeake Bay. Segura insisted, against the advice of Florida governor Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, that the Jesuits did not need military protection on their mission. He instead placed his faith in Don Luís, who promised that the land he called Ajacán would be rich in potential converts and natural resources. Segura established his mission near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay in September 1570, but when Don Luís returned to his family, the Jesuits were without support. In February 1571 the Virginia Indian killed Segura and his fellow missionaries, leaving only an altar boy alive.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:31:26 EST]]>
/Andrews_C_W_1807-1875 Fri, 04 Jan 2019 16:30:09 EST <![CDATA[Andrews, C. W. (1807–1875)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andrews_C_W_1807-1875 C. W. Andrews was an Episcopal minister and reformer who was active in the American Colonization Society. Born and educated in Vermont, he moved to Virginia for his health and there fell under the influence of William Meade, an evangelical minister and his wife's uncle. Andrews was ordained in 1832 and soon after became involved in the movement to gradually emancipate enslaved men, women, and children in Virginia and send them to the colony of Liberia in western Africa. He also preached against dancing, the theater, and tobacco. In 1842 Andrews became rector of Trinity Church in Shepherdstown, in what later became West Virginia, and as the American Civil War (1861–1865) threatened he opposed secession but remained loyal to Virginia when it joined the Confederacy. Skeptical of immigration, he believed that the North had become overrun with foreigners. Andrews continued to preach after the war and authored a number of sermons, essays, and books. He died in 1875.
Fri, 04 Jan 2019 16:30:09 EST]]>
/McPherson_Christopher_ca_1763-1817 Mon, 03 Dec 2018 15:26:51 EST <![CDATA[McPherson, Christopher (ca. 1763–1817)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/McPherson_Christopher_ca_1763-1817 Christopher McPherson was a free African American who achieved some wealth and status working as a clerk for the U.S. House of Representatives, the Virginia High Court of Chancery, and other officials and merchants. In that role he was employed by George Wythe, became acquainted with Thomas Jefferson, and dined at Montpelier with James Madison. But a willingness to express his grievances and a preoccupation with the end of the world and his role in it led to his financial and social downfall. McPherson was born a slave in Louisa County, was educated, and learned to clerk from his owner, a Scottish merchant who freed him in 1792. While working in Fluvanna County, McPherson underwent a conversion experience and for much of the rest of his life prophesied the end of the world, citing the biblical Book of Revelations. In an attempt to warn the president, he moved to the federal capital at Philadelphia, and there worked for Congress. He returned to Virginia soon after and settled in Richmond, where he earned a level of wealth and prestige rare for a free black man. Beginning in 1810, however, he initiated complaints with the city and state about a troublesome ordinance, started a controversial night school for African Americans, and appeared in court on various charges. He served time in jail, wrote A Short History of the Life of Christopher McPherson (1811), and eventually moved to New York, where he died in 1817.
Mon, 03 Dec 2018 15:26:51 EST]]>
/Buchanan_John_1748-1822 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 10:39:41 EST <![CDATA[Buchanan, John (1748–1822)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buchanan_John_1748-1822 John Buchanan was an Episcopal clergyman who served as the rector of Henrico Parish (1785–1822) and the treasurer of the Diocese of Virginia (1793–1822). Born in Scotland, he may have attended university there and received his license to minister in Virginia in 1775. A decade later he became rector of Henrico Parish and, after inheriting a large estate from his half brother, lived an easy and social life. Buchanan, who preached at Saint John's Church in Richmond, was famously close friends with the Presbyterian minister John D. Blair, and after the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 the two helped raise money for the construction of Monumental Church on the site of the disaster. While they may have intended to share the church, the Episcopalians appropriated it for themselves. Buchanan died in 1822.
Wed, 03 Oct 2018 10:39:41 EST]]>
/Bazile_s_Pre-Nuptial_Conditions_Leon_M Wed, 09 May 2018 08:15:42 EST <![CDATA[Bazile's Pre-Nuptial Conditions, Leon M.]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bazile_s_Pre-Nuptial_Conditions_Leon_M Wed, 09 May 2018 08:15:42 EST]]> /Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:09:14 EST <![CDATA[Dawson, John M. (1829–1913)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:09:14 EST]]> /Perkins_Caesar_1839-1910 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:55:19 EST <![CDATA[Perkins, Caesar (1839–1910)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Perkins_Caesar_1839-1910 Caesar Perkins served two separate terms in the House of Delegates eighteen years apart (1869–1871, 1887–1888). Born enslaved, Perkins became a leader within Buckingham County's African American community after the American Civil War (1860–1865). In 1869 he won one of the locality's two seats in the General Assembly's lower house. Outside of politics Perkins purchased 628 acres in 1870, and later operated a general store and two ordinaries. He became an ordained Baptist minister by 1877. Perkins remained involved with public affairs, following most African American politicians into the short-lived Readjuster Party and then into the Republican Party. He won his second term in 1887, representing Brunswick and Caroline counties. He died in Richmond and was buried in Buckingham County.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:55:19 EST]]>
/Evans_Joseph_P_1835-1889 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:27:15 EST <![CDATA[Evans, Joseph P. (1835–1889)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_Joseph_P_1835-1889 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:27:15 EST]]> /Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:58:18 EST <![CDATA[Toler, Burwell (ca. 1822–1880)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:58:18 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_April_20_1812 Thu, 01 Feb 2018 08:53:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Adams (April 20, 1812)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_April_20_1812 Thu, 01 Feb 2018 08:53:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_10_1812 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 17:05:16 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Adams to Thomas Jefferson (February 10, 1812)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_10_1812 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 17:05:16 EST]]> /_The_Comet_Alexandria_Daily_Gazette_October_17_1811 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:14:08 EST <![CDATA["The Comet," Alexandria Daily Gazette (October 17, 1811)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Comet_Alexandria_Daily_Gazette_October_17_1811 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:14:08 EST]]> /Walker_Wyatt_Tee_1929- Thu, 25 Jan 2018 08:09:22 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Wyatt Tee (1929–2018)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Walker_Wyatt_Tee_1929- Wyatt Tee Walker was a civil rights activist, author, and religious leader. After earning his master of divinity degree from Virginia Union University in 1953, Walker became the pastor of Gillfield Baptist Church in Petersburg. During the 1950s, he served as the president of the Petersburg branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was the state director of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in Virginia, and founded the Petersburg Improvement Association. In 1960 he was appointed chief of staff to Martin Luther King Jr. and served as the first full-time executive director of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Walker was instrumental in the fund-raising campaigns of the SCLC early in the 1960s and he helped formulate and analyze various protest strategies. He left the SCLC in 1964 and went on to serve as the pastor of Canaan Baptist Church of Christ in Harlem, New York, for thirty-seven years. Following his retirement in 2004, he returned to Virginia, where he died in 2018.
Thu, 25 Jan 2018 08:09:22 EST]]>
/Brown_Abram_d_1840 Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Abram (d. 1840)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Abram_d_1840 Abram Brown was a Baptist lay leader in Charles City County who helped found Elam Baptist Church in 1818. Born free, Brown farmed on land he inherited from his father and was wealthy compared to most African Americans of his day. He joined a Baptist church in Petersburg but soon after established a separate church on his Charles City County land and took a leadership role in his local religious community. In 1818 he transferred the land to the church, thus taking credit as founder of Elam Baptist Church. Little else is known about Brown's life. He had at least eight children, many of whom, along with their own children and grandchildren, played important roles in the African American community of Charles City County. Brown died in 1840.
Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST]]>
/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST <![CDATA[Crane, William (1790–1866)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST]]> /Minnigerode_Charles_1814-1894 Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:56:49 EST <![CDATA[Minnigerode, Charles (1814–1894)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Minnigerode_Charles_1814-1894 Charles Minnigerode was a professor of Latin and Greek and, for thirty-three years, the rector of Saint Paul's Episcopal Church in Richmond. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Saint Paul's was sometimes called "the Cathedral of the Confederacy," and its parishioners included Confederate president Jefferson Davis and Confederate general Robert E. Lee. In 1862, Minnigerode, who immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1839, baptized Davis, and in 1864, he read prayers at the burial of Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart.
Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:56:49 EST]]>
/Broaddus_William_F_1801-1876 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:14:46 EST <![CDATA[Broaddus, William F. (1801–1876)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Broaddus_William_F_1801-1876 William F. Broaddus was a Baptist minister. Born in what would later become Rappahannock County, he was educated there and in 1824 ordained as the pastor of the F. T. Baptist Church. Two years later he moved to Frederick County and advocated the work of traveling missionaries against the opposition of those who feared they would corrupt the principles of individual salvation. Broaddus's proposal that money be raised to evangelize among the poor led the Ketocton Baptist Association to deny him a seat and the Columbia Baptist Association, at least temporarily, to bar him from its conference. Broaddus eventually moved to Kentucky, then worked as an agent raising funds for Columbian College (later George Washington University) in Washington, D.C. In 1853, he became the pastor of Fredericksburg Baptist Church. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was briefly imprisoned by the U.S. Army as a Confederate sympathizer. From 1863 to 1868 he served as pastor of the Charlottesville Baptist Church before returning to Fredericksburg. He died there in 1876.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:14:46 EST]]>
/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Robert (1728–1804)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Robert Carter, also known as Robert Carter III and Councillor Carter, was a member of Virginia's Council of State (1758–1776) who, after a religious conversion, emancipated more than five hundred of his enslaved African Americans. Heir to a fortune in land and slaves built by his grandfather, Robert "King" Carter, Carter studied law in London before returning to Virginia in 1751. His contemporaries remarked on his lack of learning and social grace, and he twice ran unsuccessfully for the House of Burgesses, receiving only a handful of votes each time. Through the influence of his wife's uncle, Carter was appointed to the Council. In 1763, he served on the Virginia Committee of Correspondence, and in 1766 drafted the Council's response to the Stamp Act. In 1777, he converted to evangelical Christianity, aligning himself with the Baptists. In 1788, he converted again, this time to the teachings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg. On August 1, 1791, he took the legal steps to gradually manumit, or free, more than 500 of his slaves, the largest individual emancipation before 1860. After the death of his wife, Carter moved to Baltimore, Maryland, where he died in 1804.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST]]>
/Religious_Revivals_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 04 May 2017 13:55:28 EST <![CDATA[Religious Revivals during the Civil War]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Religious_Revivals_During_the_Civil_War Religious revivals during the American Civil War (1861–1865) were characterized by surges in religious interest and observance among large numbers of soldiers in both the Union and Confederate armies. Although they came not long after the Second Great Awakening, which was primarily a Baptist and Methodist phenomenon, the soldier revivals tended to be ecumenical and to cross class boundaries. They were often marked by frequent, fervent, and heavily attended religious ceremonies, including preaching services, organized prayer meetings, and "experience meetings," or gatherings in which individual soldiers took turns sharing with the group how God had brought them to faith in Christ. They were also evidenced by much private Bible reading and small informal prayer meetings among the troops.
Thu, 04 May 2017 13:55:28 EST]]>
/_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST <![CDATA["Funeral Procession," Richmond Dispatch (June 7, 1854)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST]]> /Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST <![CDATA[Bassett, Burwell (1764–1841)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST]]> /Blair_John_D_1759-1823 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:50:02 EST <![CDATA[Blair, John D. (1759–1823)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_John_D_1759-1823 John D. Blair was a Presbyterian minister in Hanover County and Richmond who preached variously at Pole Green Church, the Henrico Parish Church, and the Virginia State Capitol. Born in Pennsylvania and educated at what is now Princeton University, Blair may have served briefly in the American Revolution (1775–1783). After moving to Virginia he taught in Hanover County and served as president of the Washington-Henry Academy there from 1782 to 1790. He served as minister of Pole Green Church from 1785 to 1821 and as chaplain of the House of Delegates from 1800 to 1801. Blair was famously close friends with the Episcopal minister John Buchanan and after the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 the two helped raise money for the construction of Monumental Church on the site of the disaster. While they may have intended to share the church, the Episcopalians appropriated it for themselves. He died in Richmond in 1823.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:50:02 EST]]>
/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST <![CDATA[Godwyn, Preface and Introduction from The Negro's and Indians Advocate by Morgan (1680)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST]]> /Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Excerpts from Twenty-Eight Years a Slave by Thomas L. (1909)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST]]> /_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Virginia Slaves to Bishop Edmund Gibson (August 4, September 8, 1723)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST]]> /Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Mary Lee Fitzhugh (1788–1853)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Mary Lee Fitzhugh Custis was an Episcopal lay leader whose efforts helped to revive Virginia's Episcopal church early in the nineteenth century. Custis's father, William Fitzhugh, served in the Continental Congress. Her husband, George Washington Parke Custis, was the stepgrandson of George Washington and well-known writer and orator. Their daughter, Mary Randolph Custis, married Robert E. Lee. Mary Custis lived at Arlington, a plantation in Alexandria County, and from there involved herself in raising funds for Episcopal schools and the American Colonization Society, which sought to free enslaved African Americans and send them to Africa. She and her daughter Mary also took an active role in the education of slaves. Custis died in 1853 and was buried at Arlington.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST]]>
/Parish_in_Colonial_Virginia_The Mon, 14 Nov 2016 11:05:15 EST <![CDATA[Parish in Colonial Virginia, The]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parish_in_Colonial_Virginia_The A parish in colonial Virginia was a unit of both civil and religious authority that covered a set geographical territory. Each Church of England parish in the colony was served by a single minister and governed by a vestry usually composed of local elites. As a religious institution, a parish contained a mother, or central, church, and frequently two or more so-called chapels of ease in outlying areas that the minister served on successive Sundays. As a civil institution, the parish vestry was charged with overseeing a wide range of responsibilities that included social welfare and presenting moral offenders to the courts. The contemporary understanding of parishes and vestries as institutions that deal primarily, if not exclusively, with internal parochial affairs is at odds with the extent of duties associated with the colonial parish. Indeed, according to the historian John Nelson, local government in early Virginia should be understood as "parish-county" government, these two "linked institutions sharing, dividing up, and intermingling their interests and responsibilities."
Mon, 14 Nov 2016 11:05:15 EST]]>
/Two_Penny_Acts_1755_1758 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:06:52 EST <![CDATA[Two Penny Acts (1755, 1758)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Two_Penny_Acts_1755_1758 The General Assembly adopted the Two Penny Acts of 1755 and 1758 as temporary relief measures in response to the failure of the Virginia colony's tobacco crops. Tobacco was Virginia's principal export, but it also backed the colony's currency, and these crop failures threatened Virginia's system of taxation for support of local and provincial government, including the parishes and clergy of the Church of England. The Two Penny Acts allowed vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Although it reduced their annual salaries, relatively few Virginia clergymen objected to the 1755 act, which expired after ten months. They were less amenable to the second act, however. Reverend Jacob Rowe spoke so vehemently against it that he was forced to apologize to the House of Burgesses. Reverend John Camm, meanwhile, took the protest to London and succeeded in having the act revoked, which set up a conflict between Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier and the power of the Crown. When clergymen sued for their back wages, the controversy known as the Parsons' Cause erupted and became a precedent for resistance to English authority.
Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:06:52 EST]]>
/Act_of_Toleration_1689 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:24:40 EST <![CDATA[Act of Toleration (1689)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Act_of_Toleration_1689 The Act of Toleration, or "An Act for Exempting their Majestyes Protestant Subjects dissenting from the Church of England from the Penalties of certaine Lawes," passed by Parliament in 1689, represented the most significant religious reform in England since its break with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s. Instituted in the wake of the Glorious Revolution (1688–1689) that deposed the Catholic James II in favor of his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch Calvinist husband, William, the act exempted religious dissenters from certain penalties and disadvantages under which they had suffered for more than a century. Under the act's provisions, Trinitarian Protestants (not Catholics) could operate without interference from the state if they swore an oath of allegiance to the government. This excluded those Anglicans who supported a return to the Stuart monarchy (the line of James II). Offering this toleration to Presbyterians, Baptists, and other orthodox dissenters built a stronger base of support for King William's rule, but it also legally endorsed an unprecedented level of religious diversity in England. This reform would have cascading—if contested—consequences for religion in the American colonies, including Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:24:40 EST]]>
/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST <![CDATA[Witchcraft in Colonial Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Witchcraft was a genuine concern for colonial Virginians. The colony's English settlers brought with them a strong belief in the devil's power and his presence in the New World. This belief was first manifested in the Jamestown colonists' early perceptions of the Virginia Indians, whom they believed to be devil worshippers. After 1622, some colonists began to accuse one another of practicing witchcraft. Though witchcraft cases in Virginia were less common and the sentences less severe than the more famous witch trials of Salem, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, evidence exists that about two dozen such trials took place in Virginia between 1626 and 1730. They ranged from civil defamation suits to criminal accusations. The most famous of these was the trial of Grace Sherwood of Princess Anne County, in which the judges determined her guilt by administering a water test. Records indicate that the last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in Virginia in 1730; five years later, Parliament repealed the Witchcraft Act of 1604, the statute under which British American colonists prosecuted accused witches. Since then, witchcraft has been largely forgotten as an aspect of life in colonial Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST]]>
/Paleoindian_Period Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:04:45 EST <![CDATA[Paleoindian Period (16,000–8000 BC)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Paleoindian_Period The Paleoindian Period (16,000–8000 BC) came toward the end of the Ice Age, a time when the climate warmed and the largest mammals became extinct. Likely having originally migrated from Asia, the first people in Virginia were hunter-gatherers who left behind lithic, or stone, tools, often spearheads. At the Cactus Hill Archaeological Site in Sussex County, these date back to 16,000 BC, or well before the better-known Clovis culture. The so-called Paleoamericans likely banded together in groups of thirty to fifty and located themselves near high-quality stone resources, especially in Dinwiddie and Mecklenburg counties. While keeping a base camp, they may have established smaller settlements for more specialized tasks such as tool-making and hunting. The bands probably lacked central leadership, moved often, and traded with one another. Based on the religious practices of the later Virginia Indians, they likely were animists, investing various natural forces with spiritual power.
Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:04:45 EST]]>
/Custalow_George_F_Thunder_Cloud_1865-1949 Fri, 30 Sep 2016 14:24:42 EST <![CDATA[Custalow, George F. "Thunder Cloud" (1865–1949)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custalow_George_F_Thunder_Cloud_1865-1949 George F. "Thunder Cloud" Custalow was the chief of the Mattaponi tribe from 1914 until his death in 1949. Born in King William County in 1865, Custalow instituted educational and religious reform in his community and helped forge Mattaponi tribal identity. (Prior to his efforts, it was mistakenly believed that the Mattaponi were a branch of the Pamunkey, not a separate Powhatan tribe.) Under his leadership, a Mattaponi school opened on the reservation and tribal members founded the Mattaponi Indian Baptist Church. Custalow also campaigned with Pamunkey chief George Major Cook against legislation that restricted Virginia Indians' civil rights even further than the Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which passed in 1924, already did. He died on the Mattaponi Indian Reservation on March 18, 1949.
Fri, 30 Sep 2016 14:24:42 EST]]>
/Farrar_Joseph_E_1830-1892 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:13:59 EST <![CDATA[Farrar, Joseph E. (1830–1892)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farrar_Joseph_E_1830-1892 Joseph E. Farrar was a Richmond builder and civic leader in the decades after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Farrar was born free and held a respected position as a contractor before the abolition of slavery, but he needed a gubernatorial pardon to escape being sold into slavery after being convicted of receiving stolen property. He began his civic involvement less than a month after the fall of Richmond, helping organize the Colored Men's Equal Rights League. Farrar and other leaders established the Virginia Home Building Fund and Loan Association to assist African Americans in purchasing their own homes. He also received contracts from the Freedmen's Bureau to work on school buildings in Richmond. Farrar held leadership positions in a series of Baptist and educational organizations and served on Richmond's common council as a member of the Knights of Labor's reform faction. He remained active in the community until his 1892 death in Richmond.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:13:59 EST]]>
/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST <![CDATA[Pamphlet, Gowan (fl. 1779–1807)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST]]> /Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Peyton E. (ca. 1857–1950)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Peyton E. Anderson was a minister and the first African American superintendent of Prince Edward County's rural black schools. Born enslaved near Farmville, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) he committed himself to getting an education and studied ministry at Richmond Theological Institute. He became the superintendent of schools for African Americans in Prince Edward County, where he oversaw the construction of twenty-three rural schoolhouses and developed a curriculum centered on industrial education. For twenty-five years he was also principal of the Virso School, in Prince Edward County. One county superintendent described him as the most versatile schoolteacher he had ever seen. During his career in education, Anderson served as pastor of New Bethel and Shiloh churches, and at his death in 1950 was pastor of Mount Zion Baptist Church.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST]]>
/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST <![CDATA[Blair, James (ca. 1655–1743)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 James Blair was an Anglican minister, a notoriously combative member of the governor's Council (1694–1695; 1696–1697; 1701–1743) who worked successfully to have three governors removed, and, with Francis Nicholson, the cofounder of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Scotland, Blair came to Virginia in 1685 as rector of Henrico Parish. He married, acquired land, and in 1689 became commissary, or the Anglican bishop's representative in America. Blair's clerical convocations in 1690, 1705, and 1719 were notoriously rancorous in part due to his tendency to sympathize more with the laity than his fellow clerics; however, the 1690 meeting proved especially significant for Blair's "Seven Propositions," which led to the founding of the College of William and Mary. As president for life, Blair secured funding and overcame powerful opposition from men like Virginia governor Sir Edmund Andros. In the meantime, Blair consolidated his own power by becoming rector of James City Parish in Williamsburg, and in 1698 he successfully fought to have Andros removed. Over the years, Blair did the same to two more governors while continually expanding his college. By the 1720s he had rebuilt the school after a fire; housed an Indian school, chapel, library, and president's house; drafted the first college statutes; hired the first full-time faculty; and transferred the original charter to the president and masters. Blair died in Williamsburg in 1743.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST]]>
/Clayton_John_1656_or_1657-1725 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:42:16 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (1656 or 1657–1725)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_1656_or_1657-1725 John Clayton conducted key observations of Virginia's flora and fauna while helping secure the Church of England's authority. The Oxford graduate and clergy member left England to become rector of Jamestown's James City Parish. Clayton, known for his scientific observations, took an interest in the natural world of Virginia and recorded his observations of numerous natural phenomena. John Brickell later plagiarized his works when writing his Natural History of North-Carolina (1737). Clayton, known for his intellectual sermons, became Virginia's commissary, or first personal representative of the bishop of London. From his position, he aggressively converted dissenters. Clayton returned to England in 1686.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:42:16 EST]]>
/Davis_Noah_1804-1867 Tue, 12 Jan 2016 11:47:08 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Noah (1804–1867)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Noah_1804-1867 Noah Davis was a Baptist minister and author of an emancipation narrative, A Narrative of the Life of Rev. Noah Davis, a Colored Man, published in 1859. Born into slavery in Madison County, Davis learned farming and carpentry and joined the Baptist church in Fredericksburg, which elected him a deacon. In 1847, white Baptists paid for Davis's freedom (he had already raised some of the money) and hired him as a missionary to African Americans in Baltimore. The next year he established the Second Colored Baptist Church in that city and over the next decade raised the money to free his family, who were in danger of being sold. His memoir was published in part to earn funds for that effort. In 1863, Davis attended the American Baptist Missionary Convention in Washington, D.C., and there met with President Abraham Lincoln, requesting he be allowed to preach to African American troops. In 1866, his church united with another, and Davis died the next year, in Baltimore.
Tue, 12 Jan 2016 11:47:08 EST]]>
/Methodists_in_Early_Virginia Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:13:39 EST <![CDATA[Methodists in Early Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Methodists_in_Early_Virginia Methodists had only a small presence in Virginia at the beginning of the American Revolution (1775–1783), but by the time of the American Civil War (1861–1865) they had become, along with the Baptists, one of the state's dominant denominations. Organized at the University of Oxford in the 1730s by John Wesley and a group of fellow students, Methodism came to Virginia in the mid-1700s. Robert Williams arrived in the colony in 1772 and soon formed Virginia's first Methodist circuit. The Brunswick Circuit, as it was called, hosted major revivals in 1775–1776, a time in which the colony's Methodist population almost doubled. Following John Wesley's lead, many Methodists were antislavery and, during the Revolution, loyal to the British government. In 1784, the group formed its own national church, the American Methodist Episcopal Church, and a second major revival occurred in Virginia from 1785 until 1788. Thousands of converts were won over by the promise of forgiveness of sins and a style of worship that emphasized trances, dreams, visions, and bodily movement. By the time of the Second Great Awakening, the Methodists, although still hosting revivals in Virginia, had become more politically and socially mainstream. Their presence transformed Virginia religion, however, by helping to usher in an era free from state-sponsored religion.
Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:13:39 EST]]>
/Bucke_Richard_1581_or_1582-ca_1624 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:27:53 EST <![CDATA[Bucke, Richard (1581 or 1582–ca. 1624)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bucke_Richard_1581_or_1582-ca_1624 Richard Bucke was an Anglican minister who came to Jamestown in 1610, may have performed the marriage ceremony for Pocahontas and John Rolfe in 1614, and in 1619 opened with prayer the first legislative assembly in Virginia. Born and educated in England, Bucke was delayed on his way to Virginia by a storm and spent almost ten months in Bermuda. For a time he was the only minister in Jamestown, and his experiences in the colony seem to have been difficult. His date of death appears to have been around 1624.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:27:53 EST]]>
/Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:20:34 EST <![CDATA[Charlottesville during the Civil War]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War Charlottesville provided the Confederate war effort with swords, uniforms, and artificial limbs during the American Civil War (1861–1865). It was also home to a 500-bed military hospital that employed hundreds of the town's residents, cared for more than 22,000 patients, and was superintended by Dr. J. L. Cabell, a professor of medicine at the nearby University of Virginia. In the summer of 1861, the 19th Virginia Infantry Regiment was organized, recruiting most of its members from Charlottesville and Albemarle County. The unit served with the Army of Northern Virginia all the way through to the Appomattox Campaign (1865), including at Pickett's Charge (1863), where it lost 60 percent of its men. African Americans, both enslaved and free, who composed a majority of the town and county's population, were the subject of heightened white fears of violence, their movements controlled by a curfew. In 1863, black members of the biracial First Baptist Church established the Charlottesville African Church. Although the war's fighting stayed mostly to the east and west, a raid led by Union general George A. Custer was stopped just north of the city in the spring of 1864. Early the next year, town leaders surrendered Charlottesville to Custer, preventing the community's destruction.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:20:34 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Religion Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:41:46 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Religion]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Religion Thomas Jefferson was deeply but unconventionally religious. An empiricist, he believed that a rational and benevolent God was evident in the beauty and order of the universe. He professed "Christianism," a belief in the morals taught by Jesus of Nazareth, but he rejected Jesus's divinity, resurrection, the atonement, and biblical miracles. As such, Jefferson's beliefs resisted conventional labels, and in 1819 he suggested to a correspondent that "I am of a sect by myself, as far as I know." Jefferson meticulously cut up four copies of the Gospels (in English, French, Greek, and Latin), retaining only selected passages, without miracles, to create The Jefferson Bible, his own book for spiritual guidance and solace. Jefferson's career was also marked by religious controversy. He was denounced as an "arch-infidel" in the presidential election of 1800, and his efforts to prevent the appointment of a minister to teach religion at the University of Virginia, one of the first state-owned colleges in the United States, met strong resistance. Jefferson embraced god-given human rights and opposed their abridgment by government. He is known as one of the founders of American religious freedom, and his phrase "a wall of separation between Church & State" has been viewed as emblematic by historians and by the modern United States Supreme Court.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:41:46 EST]]>
/Butt_Israel_LaFayette_1848-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:30:20 EST <![CDATA[Butt, Israel L. (1848–1916)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butt_Israel_LaFayette_1848-1916 Israel L. Butt played a key role in expanding and overseeing the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Virginia during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Born in Norfolk County, Butt escaped slavery and joined the Union army, where he learned to read and underwent a religious experience. He was ordained in 1881 and graduated with a theology degree from what later became Hampton University. Butt ministered and oversaw different districts of the denomination. Through his work, he became a school principal and served as a trustee or board member of educational institutions in Virginia, North Carolina, and Ohio. Butt researched and wrote History of African Methodism in Virginia, or Four Decades in the Old Dominion, which was published in 1908.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:30:20 EST]]>
/Bragg_George_Freeman_1863-1940 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:02:48 EST <![CDATA[Bragg, George F. (1863–1940)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bragg_George_Freeman_1863-1940 George F. Bragg was born into slavery and later became a journalist and Episcopal minister. Dismissed from divinity school, he began his public career working for Readjuster leader William Mahone and establishing the weekly Petersburg Lancet. Bragg left politics in 1884 after divisiveness within the Readjuster Party. He returned to the seminary in 1885 and a few years later took over a struggling Norfolk congregation. Within five years he turned it into a self-supporting church. In 1888 he was ordained a priest at Saint Luke's Episcopal Church in Norfolk, making him only the twelfth black Episcopal priest in the United States. Bragg moved to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1891 where he revived another church, edited a monthly newspaper, the Church Advocate, and wrote books and pamphlets. He died in Baltimore in 1940.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:02:48 EST]]>
/Atwell_Joseph_Sandiford_1831-1881 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:20:50 EST <![CDATA[Atwell, Joseph S. (1831–1881)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atwell_Joseph_Sandiford_1831-1881 Joseph S. Atwell was the first black Episcopal priest in the Diocese of Virginia. The Barbados-born Atwell graduated from the Philadelphia Divinity School in 1866. The following year the Diocese of Kentucky named him its first black deacon. In 1868 the Virginia Episcopal Church's governing body recruited Atwell to preside over Saint Stephen's Church in Petersburg, ordaining him a priest the following year. Though he helped his church grow in size and wealth, he chafed under restrictions that put his ministry under the Committee on Colored Congregations. In 1873 he left Virginia for Saint Stephen's Church of Savannah, Georgia, and eventually took over historic Saint Philip's Church in New York City. He died there in 1881.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:20:50 EST]]>
/Religion_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:39:06 EST <![CDATA[Religion during the Civil War]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Religion_During_the_Civil_War As many as two-thirds of all Virginians attended a Protestant church before the American Civil War (1861–1865). These men and women witnessed intense conflict within their congregations and denominational councils before, during, and after the war. All Virginia churchgoers saw their congregations torn asunder at least once during the sectional conflict, whether in the process of dividing from Northern churches before the war, when they sent their sons to fight, or upon the secession of black members from biracial communities. On a more ideological level, even many Virginians who were not connected with a particular church interpreted the Civil War in religious terms. All Virginians who faced death in the field or on forced labor projects—or who experienced the deaths of loved ones—wondered why God permitted such extraordinary suffering. In addition, white Virginians found Union victory a disturbing challenge to their belief that God had favored both slavery and the Confederacy. Black Virginians, on the other hand, found Union victory a resounding affirmation that God had heard their prayers.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:39:06 EST]]>
/Slavery_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:20:10 EST <![CDATA[Slavery during the Civil War]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_During_the_Civil_War Virginia had the largest population of enslaved African Americans of any state in the Confederacy, and those slaves responded to the American Civil War (1861–1865) in a variety of ways. Some volunteered to assist the Confederate war effort, while many others were forced to support the Confederacy, working on farms and in factories and households throughout Virginia. Thousands escaped to the Union army's lines, earning their freedom and forcing the United States to develop a uniform policy regarding emancipation. Others remained on their home plantations and farms but took advantage of the war to gain some measure of autonomy for their families. Slaves' wartime actions most often exhibited their strong desire for freedom, and even those who chose not to escape frequently welcomed the Union army as liberators.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:20:10 EST]]>
/The_Duties_of_Servants_and_Masters_an_excerpt_from_The_Whole_Duty_of_Man_1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:27:55 EST <![CDATA[The Duties of Servants and Masters; an excerpt from The Whole Duty of Man (1658)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Duties_of_Servants_and_Masters_an_excerpt_from_The_Whole_Duty_of_Man_1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:27:55 EST]]> /Black_Baptist_Convention Mon, 19 Oct 2015 09:15:08 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Baptist State Convention]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Baptist_Convention Mon, 19 Oct 2015 09:15:08 EST]]> /Bowler_John_Andrew_1862-1935 Mon, 14 Sep 2015 09:51:57 EST <![CDATA[Bowler, J. Andrew (1862–1935)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowler_John_Andrew_1862-1935 J. Andrew Bowler helped organize the first school for African Americans on Richmond's Church Hill and then served on its faculty for more than fifty years. The son of an enslaved woman, Bowler demonstrated unusual intelligence in his childhood and after the war worked to pay for his education at what later became Virginia Union University. After a brief sojourn in New York, he returned to Richmond and helped establish George Mason Elementary School. He spent years as its highest ranking African American faculty member. Bowler, a religious man, was ordained a minister in 1901 and served as pastor of Mount Olivet Baptist Church. Thirteen years after his death, Richmond's school board opened J. Andrew Bowler School.
Mon, 14 Sep 2015 09:51:57 EST]]>
/Davis_Marion_E_1862-1946 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:18:33 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Marion E. (1862–1946)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Marion_E_1862-1946 Marion E. Davis, an African Methodist Episcopal minister, led the Negro Organization Society (NOS) from 1930 until 1942. Born enslaved in Mississippi, Davis moved to Virginia in 1910 and took over Portsmouth's Emmanuel Church. After leading congregations in Richmond and Norfolk, he served as presiding elder over four separate districts. Davis became involved with the Negro Organization Society, a community-improvement organization in line with the non-confrontational style associated with Booker T. Washington, a few years after its 1910 start. During his tenure as president of the NOS, the organization funded voter registration programs and took full advantage of opportunities made possible by New Deal federal aid. Davis died in Portsmouth in 1946.
Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:18:33 EST]]>
/Massey_John_E_1819-1901 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:52:08 EST <![CDATA[Massey, John E. (1819–1901)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Massey_John_E_1819-1901 John E. Massey served as the lieutenant governor of Virginia (1886–1890), a member of the General Assembly (1873­–1879), and an influential member of two Virginia political parties. Born in Spotsylvania County, he served as a Baptist minister before the American Civil War (1861–1865), earning him the nickname Parson Massey. He won election to the General Assembly in 1873 as a Conservative, but joined the new Readjuster Party in 1879. After he lost his seat in the Senate, the Readjusters appointed Massey auditor of public accounts in 1879. He broke with Readjuster leader William Mahone in 1882 and the next year Massey helped revive the Democratic Party. As part of a Democratic sweep in 1885, Massey won election as lieutenant governor, supporting the disfranchisement of African Americans. In 1889 the assembly voted him to the first of two terms as state superintendent of public instruction. During his tenure, he promoted summer teacher training institutes but endorsed a proposal that would limit already meager appropriations for African American schools. He selected the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University) as the site for a state-supported summer normal institutes for teacher education. He remained active in the Baptist Church throughout his life, supported the temperance movement, and died on April 24, 1901, in Charlottesville, after having been elected to the upcoming constitutional convention.
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:52:08 EST]]>
/Letter_to_Fields_Cook_and_the_Colored_State_Convention_1865 Mon, 15 Jun 2015 15:46:29 EST <![CDATA[Letter to Fields Cook and the Colored State Convention (1865)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_to_Fields_Cook_and_the_Colored_State_Convention_1865 Mon, 15 Jun 2015 15:46:29 EST]]> /Browne_William_Washington_1849-1897 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:46:58 EST <![CDATA[Browne, William Washington (1849–1897)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Browne_William_Washington_1849-1897 William Washington Browne was a slave, a Union solder during the American Civil War (1861–1865), a teacher, a Methodist minister, and the founder of Richmond's Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers, an African American fraternal organization. As leader of the True Reformers, Browne strived to help members live productive lives without depending upon the white community. By establishing insurance that provided members with sick and death benefits and by encouraging members to purchase land and engage in practices of temperance and thrift, Browne believed that blacks in the post–Civil War South could thrive. Browne's enterprising mind helped lead the True Reformers in creating and organizing a bank which became the nation's first chartered black financial institution and a model that others, such as Maggie Lena Walker, would follow. Browne died in 1897 and the True Reformers initially continued to prosper, but the order collapsed in the wake of the scandalous failure of its bank in 1910.
Wed, 20 May 2015 10:46:58 EST]]>
/_The_Appeal_from_Proceedings_of_the_Convention_of_the_Colored_People_of_VA_Held_in_the_City_of_Alexandria_1865 Mon, 11 May 2015 14:54:47 EST <![CDATA["The Appeal" from Proceedings of the Convention of the Colored People of VA., Held in the City of Alexandria (1865)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Appeal_from_Proceedings_of_the_Convention_of_the_Colored_People_of_VA_Held_in_the_City_of_Alexandria_1865 Mon, 11 May 2015 14:54:47 EST]]> /Interview_with_Allen_Wilson_July_16_1937 Mon, 11 May 2015 13:19:04 EST <![CDATA[Interview with Allen Wilson (July 16, 1937)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Interview_with_Allen_Wilson_July_16_1937 Mon, 11 May 2015 13:19:04 EST]]> /Perkins_Fountain_M_1816_or_1817-1896 Fri, 01 May 2015 08:36:14 EST <![CDATA[Perkins, Fountain M. (1816 or 1817–1896)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Perkins_Fountain_M_1816_or_1817-1896 Fountain M. Perkins was born into slavery and later served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). An overseer on his owner's farm, by 1867 he was a preacher and had become a political figure. A local official with the Freedmen's Bureau considered him a prominent man in Louisa County. Perkins began speaking at political meetings and was considered a candidate for the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868, the first election in which Virginia's African American men could vote. In 1869 he won one of the county's two seats in the House of Delegates. He voted to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which the state was required to do before being readmitted to the United States. Perkins did not run for reelection in 1871 but stayed active in politics during the next two decades, attending local Republican meetings, sitting as an election judge, and serving on the state central committee. He acquired property and farmed, and then, in 1896, died of the effects of paralysis in Louisa County.
Fri, 01 May 2015 08:36:14 EST]]>
/Remarks_by_William_Williams_August_11_1865 Mon, 27 Apr 2015 14:56:12 EST <![CDATA[Remarks by William Williams (August 11, 1865)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Remarks_by_William_Williams_August_11_1865 Mon, 27 Apr 2015 14:56:12 EST]]> /_The_Sun_Do_Move_by_John_Jasper_1878 Fri, 17 Apr 2015 14:40:23 EST <![CDATA["The Sun Do Move" by John Jasper (1878)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Sun_Do_Move_by_John_Jasper_1878 Fri, 17 Apr 2015 14:40:23 EST]]> /An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_March_15_1832 Wed, 15 Apr 2015 14:42:36 EST <![CDATA[An act to amend an act entitled, "an act reducing into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes" (March 15, 1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_March_15_1832 Wed, 15 Apr 2015 14:42:36 EST]]> /Russell_James_Solomon_1857-1935 Thu, 29 Jan 2015 17:33:54 EST <![CDATA[Russell, James Solomon (1857–1935)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Russell_James_Solomon_1857-1935 James Solomon Russell founded Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School (later Saint Paul's College). Born enslaved, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) Russell sought an education and attended Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University) when family finances allowed it. He established himself as a teacher and became attracted to the Episcopal Church. Russell entered divinity school, serving in a series of religious positions while attending what became the Bishop Payne Divinity School, in Petersburg. The church ordained him a deacon in 1882 and a priest in 1887. He began his ministry in 1882 in the Brunswick County town of Lawrenceville. In 1888 he founded Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School, in response to the local community's intense desire for educational opportunities. Russell fended off the school's early struggles by aggressively fund-raising, and Saint Paul's expanded in both its size and curriculum. He retired as its principal 1929 and was succeeded by his son James Alvin Russell. He died in Lawrenceville in 1935.
Thu, 29 Jan 2015 17:33:54 EST]]>
/Manly_Ralza_M_1822-1897 Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:38:59 EST <![CDATA[Manly, Ralza M. (1822–1897)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Manly_Ralza_M_1822-1897 Ralza M. Manly served as Virginia's superintendent of education under the Freedmen's Bureau and later helped establish and run the Richmond Colored Normal School. Born in Vermont, Manly was a minister and educator who began teaching African Americans when he became chaplain of the 1st United States Colored Cavalry at Fort Monroe during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war he oversaw the rapid expansion of black education civilian government returned to Virginia. He spearheaded the creation of what became the highly regarded Richmond Colored Normal School and served as its principal twice. In 1885 he left the state for Wellesley College in Massachusetts, where he joined his second wife on the faculty. He eventually moved to San Diego, California, and died there in 1897.
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:38:59 EST]]>
/Armistead_John_M_1852-1929 Thu, 15 Jan 2015 16:31:11 EST <![CDATA[Armistead, John M. (1852–1929)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armistead_John_M_1852-1929 John M. Armistead was an influential Baptist minister in Portsmouth. Born enslaved, Armistead began his religious studies in 1868. He was a successful minister in Tennessee before taking over Portsmouth's Zion Baptist Church in 1882. During his forty-three years at the congregation's helm its membership nearly tripled and helped create five other churches. One of the most inspiring pulpit orators of his time, Armistead presided over the Virginia Baptist State Convention for six years, and he helped broker a deal that led to the establishment of Lynchburg Baptist Seminary (later Virginia University of Lynchburg). He retired in 1925 and died in Portsmouth four years later.
Thu, 15 Jan 2015 16:31:11 EST]]>
/Dawson_Thomas_1715-1760 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:16:21 EST <![CDATA[Dawson, Thomas (1715–1760)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dawson_Thomas_1715-1760 Thomas Dawson was an Anglican priest, rector of Bruton Parish (1743–1759), commissary of the bishop of London (1752–1759), member of the governor's Council (1753–1760), and president of the College of William and Mary (1755–1760). Born in England, Dawson traveled to Virginia in 1735 and attended the College of William and Mary, where he studied and worked. He was ordained as a deacon and priest of the Church of England by the bishop of Carlisle in 1740 and served as rector of the Bruton Parish Church. He was named commissary of the bishop of London on September 21, 1752, and was appointed to the governor's Council in 1753. In 1755 Dawson became president of the College of William and Mary. His popularity among Virginia clergymen declined in the 1750s when he neglected to formally protest the Two Penny Acts; his tenure as president of William and Mary was tainted by a power struggle between the faculty, composed of clergymen, and the board of visitors, composed of laypeople. However, Dawson remained an advocate for the education of children and African Americans throughout his life. At the end of his life, Dawson became dependent on alcohol, and in 1760 the board of visitors accused him of habitual drunkenness, infrequent attendance at college prayers, and gambling. Dawson died shortly thereafter, on November 29, 1760.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:16:21 EST]]>
/Davies_Samuel_1723-1761 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:14:42 EST <![CDATA[Davies, Samuel (1723–1761)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davies_Samuel_1723-1761 Samuel Davies was an evangelical Presbyterian pastor and educator who lived and worked in Hanover County from 1748 to 1759. He played a critical role in the early years of the Great Awakening, the series of religious revivals that would eventually lead to the disestablishment of the Church of England as America's official church. Davies was a skilled orator whose sermons were filled with vivid language and punctuated with passionate calls for conversion; his rhetorical style influenced future revolutionary and Governor Patrick Henry, who as a boy accompanied his mother to Davies's church. Unlike other itinerant preachers of his day, Davies worked within the confines English law set for dissenters, and in doing so established no fewer than eight licensed meetinghouses in colonial Virginia. Davies also wrote poetry as a means of spreading God's word, and was one of the first colonial Americans to compose hymns. In 1753 he traveled to London to raise funds for the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University), and in 1759 left Virginia to become president of the college. He died in Princeton, New Jersey, on February 4, 1761, at age thirty-seven, and is buried in the presidents' plot of Princeton Cemetery.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:14:42 EST]]>
/Church_of_England_in_Virginia Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:44:59 EST <![CDATA[Church of England in Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Church_of_England_in_Virginia The Church of England was the established church of the Virginia colony. It came to Virginia as early as 1607, when the first English colonists settled Jamestown, but was not formally established by the House of Burgesses until 1619. Religious life in Virginia reflected the economic, geographic, and political circumstances of the colony. People from all segments of society attended Anglican services (although slaves often worshipped in segregated galleries or attended a separate service). Because Virginians tended to settle in plantations scattered throughout the countryside rather than in towns, parishes were typically larger than those in England. This made it difficult for those who lived in outlying areas to make the weekly trip to their parish's main church. Instead, most parishes maintained multiple "chapels of ease" to accommodate far-flung parishioners. The Church of England in Virginia was subject to laws passed by the General Assembly and, unlike in England, was supervised at the parish level by vestries (boards of local parishioners). In Virginia a vestry had the authority to choose—or refuse to induct—a minister for its parish. This led to a tense relationship between the congregation and the clergy. The status of the Church of England in Virginia improved late in the seventeenth century, after the bishop of London appointed minister James Blair to represent his interests in the colony, and on the eve of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the church was as powerful as it had ever been.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:44:59 EST]]>
/Binga_Anthony_Jr_1843-1919 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:44:02 EST <![CDATA[Binga, Anthony, Jr. (1843–1919)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Binga_Anthony_Jr_1843-1919 Anthony Binga Jr. was a Baptist minister and educator. Born in Canada, where his parents had fled to escape slavery, Binga became a preacher and principal in Ohio before settling in Richmond in 1872. He served as the minister of Manchester's First Baptist Church and became the first African American teacher in Manchester, during that period an independent city across the James River from Richmond. He served in the school system for sixteen years, overseeing secondary education for Manchester's black students at what expanded to include six schools. His church grew as the city developed, and he quickly became a leading light in the African American Baptist organizations. He was the first chairman of the Foreign Mission Board of the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, the antecedent to the National Baptist Convention.
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:44:02 EST]]>
/Downes_Elizabeth_James_Morris_1886-1968 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:13:35 EST <![CDATA[Downes, Elizabeth James Morris (1886–1968)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Downes_Elizabeth_James_Morris_1886-1968 Elizabeth James Morris Downes was a leader among Virginia's Baptist women for much of the twentieth century. Downes rose to prominence in 1910 when she became superintendent for the Eastern Shore's chapters of the Women's Missionary Union (WMU), a position she held until she became president of the the state organization in 1931. Though her presidency of the WMU of Virginia took place during the Great Depression, the association continued to fund missions and created the Interracial Department to improve African American education. Her term as president ended in 1934. Downes then became state chair of the Margaret Fund, which provided scholarship aid to children of Baptist missionaries, from 1935 until her retirement in 1950.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:13:35 EST]]>
/Conway_Moncure_Daniel_1832-1907 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:02:36 EST <![CDATA[Conway, Moncure Daniel (1832–1907)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conway_Moncure_Daniel_1832-1907 Moncure Conway was a Methodist minister, Unitarian minister, abolitionist, free thinker, and prolific writer who the historian John d'Entremont describes as "the most thoroughgoing white male radical produced by the antebellum South." Born into a prominent Virginia slaveholding family, he nevertheless became an outspoken critic of the South's "peculiar institution," anguishing over how to reconcile his background with his antislavery convictions in his younger years. He first openly allied himself with abolitionists in July 1854 in the wake of the capture in Boston, Massachusetts, of fugitive slave Anthony Burns, whom Conway claimed to have known in Virginia. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Conway accompanied thirty-one of his father's slaves, all of whom had escaped to Washington, D.C., on a harrowing train ride to freedom in southwestern Ohio. There he established what came to be known as the Conway Colony; many African Americans continue to live in the area and identify their ancestors as Virginia slaves. In addition, Conway traveled in high literary circles, authoring as many seventy published works, including popular book-length arguments against slavery and important biographies of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Thomas Paine.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:02:36 EST]]>
/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "Short Report of the American Journey, Which Was Made from the 2nd of October of Last Year to the First of December of this Current Year 1702" by Frantz Ludwig Michel (1702)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST]]> /Fay_Lydia_Mary_ca_1804-1878 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:09:23 EST <![CDATA[Fay, Lydia Mary (ca. 1804–1878)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fay_Lydia_Mary_ca_1804-1878 Lydia Mary Fay was an educator who supervised an Episcopal mission school in Shanghai almost continuously from 1851 until her death in 1878. Between 1839 and 1850, when she volunteered to go to China, Fay worked as a governess and educator in Virginia and New York. Her mission work was inspired by Bishop William Meade and Rector Charles Backus Dana of Alexandria's Christ Episcopal Church, which she attended while living in Fairfax County. Fay became so proficient in Chinese that she supervised the translation of texts into English and taught composition courses in both languages. The year after Fay's death, the school merged with another Episcopal boarding school in Shanghai to form Saint John's College.
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:09:23 EST]]>
/Corprew_E_G_ca_1830-1881 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:25:50 EST <![CDATA[Corprew, E. G. (ca. 1830–1881)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corprew_E_G_ca_1830-1881 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:25:50 EST]]> /Puritans_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 17 Jul 2014 17:30:20 EST <![CDATA[Puritans in Colonial Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Puritans_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 17 Jul 2014 17:30:20 EST]]> /Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:23:23 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 The Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was drafted by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786, before being signed into law three days later. The statute affirms the rights of Virginians to choose their faiths without coercion; separates church and state; and, while acknowledging the right of future assemblies to change the law, concludes that doing so would "be an infringement of a natural right." Jefferson's original bill "for establishing religious freedom," drafted in 1777 and introduced in 1779, was tabled in the face of opposition among powerful members of the established Church of England. Then, in 1784, a resolution calling for a tax to support all Christian sects excited such opposition that James Madison saw an opportunity to reintroduce Jefferson's bill. It passed both houses of the General Assembly with minimal changes to its text. One of the most eloquent statements of religious freedom ever written, the statute influenced both the drafting of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the United States Supreme Court's understanding of religious freedom. Jefferson considered it one of his crowning achievements and a necessary bulwark against tyranny.
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:23:23 EST]]>
/Pendleton_William_Nelson_1809-1883 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:40:07 EST <![CDATA[Pendleton, William Nelson (1809–1883)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pendleton_William_Nelson_1809-1883 William Nelson Pendleton was an Episcopal priest and chief of artillery for the Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865). No Confederate officer in the East generated less heat on the battlefield and more away from it than Pendleton. As Robert E. Lee's chief of artillery, he was responsible for hundreds of guns and thousands of cannoneers, but he never fully utilized the potential of the army's "long arm" in battlefield to merit his high standing. Pendleton's efforts usually resulted in controversy, the most scandalous occurring when he abandoned his command at the Battle of Shepherdstown on September 19, 1862. Yet Pendleton did make a few important contributions in reorganizing the artillery into the more efficient and effective battalion system that enabled battery commanders to maximize their limited firepower. Pendleton was also a man of the cloth and his attention to the spiritual needs of the rank-and-file must have endeared him to the pious Lee.
Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:40:07 EST]]>
/Cannon_James_1864-1944 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 09:25:52 EST <![CDATA[Cannon, James (1864–1944)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cannon_James_1864-1944 James Cannon Jr. was an educator, a bishop of the southern Methodist Church, a leader of Prohibitionists in Virginia and the nation, and a political activist of such skill and combativeness that he became one of the most famous, and deeply controversial, American figures of the early twentieth century. Best known as a relentless advocate of Prohibition, Cannon drove the Virginia Anti-Saloon League's campaign for statewide Prohibition, adopted in 1914. He then served as the national Anti-Saloon League's principal Democratic lobbyist through the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1919 and the subsequent enforcement of national Prohibition during the 1920s. Cannon was a partisan Democrat, yet in 1928 he led a rebellion of southern Democrats against the presidential campaign of Alfred E. Smith, a wet, Catholic representative of the urban wing of the Democratic Party. Also an innovator and divisive figure within his church, Cannon, who became a bishop in 1918, directed worldwide missionary efforts and unsuccessfully pushed for the unification of the northern and southern branches of American Methodism. Charges of embezzlement, stock-market gambling, and adultery, fanned by Cannon's numerous enemies, dogged the bishop from 1929 until 1934 and diminished his influence thereafter.
Sun, 15 Jun 2014 09:25:52 EST]]>
/_Declaration_Edward_Waterhouse_s Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:05:48 EST <![CDATA[A Declaration of the State of the Colony and Affaires in Virginia (1622)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Declaration_Edward_Waterhouse_s A Declaration of the state of the Colonie and Affaires in Virginia. With a Relation of the barbarous Massacre in the time of peace and League, treacherously executed upon the English Infidels, 22 March last … (1622), written by Edward Waterhouse, was the Virginia Company of London's official publication about an assault by Virginia Indians on the English plantations along the James River that took place on March 22, 1622. The company's secretary, Waterhouse collected information from eyewitnesses and Virginia's governing officials and concluded that the surprise attack, which killed more than a quarter of the colony's population, was executed with the purpose of their "utter extirpation." Waterhouse describes a time, just prior to the attack, of "firme peace and amitie," when Indians and colonists freely mingled. He notes that the Indians used this to their advantage, insinuating themselves into the homes of colonists, using the colonists' own tools to "basely and barbarously" kill them, and then disappearing into the woods. Outraged that most Indians, and in particular their leader Opechancanough, had not accepted Christianity, Waterhouse declares that the attack justified a policy whereby the English "destroy them who sought to destroy us." The attack, and the company's response to it, marks a point at which colonists, no longer dependent on the Indians economically, began in earnest to kill them and seize their land.
Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:05:48 EST]]>
/Religion_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 17:31:30 EST <![CDATA[Religion in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Religion_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Knowledge of religion in early Virginia Indian society largely comes from English colonists like Captain John Smith, who stated that all Indians had "religion, Deare, and Bow and Arrowes." Because Smith and his countrymen almost exclusively dealt with the Powhatans of Tsenacomoco—an alliance of twenty-eight to thirty-two petty tribes and chiefdoms centered around the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers—the most is known about them. The Powhatans worshipped a number of spirits, the most important of whom was Okee. Men cut their hair in imitation of Okee's. To assuage his anger in times of crisis or court his pleasure before the hunt, they made sacrifices. Other spirits included the benevolent Ahone, the Great Hare creator god, an unnamed female divinity, and the Sun god. In charge of managing relations with these various spirits were the kwiocosuk, or shamans, who lived apart from common Powhatans and wielded the society's ultimate authority. Quiocosins , or holy temples, housed the shamans and hosted various rituals. When weroances, or chiefs, died, they were reduced to bundles of bones and, for several years, stored in the temples. The Powhatans also had a variety of rituals associated with eating, hunting, male initiation, and the killing of prisoners of war. Smith described what appeared to be a "conjuration" and, on another occasion, a three-day dance that may have been a yearly harvest festival.
Fri, 30 May 2014 17:31:30 EST]]>
/Political_Organization_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 15:26:54 EST <![CDATA[Political Organization in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Political_Organization_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Political organization in early Virginia Indian society likely was similar across the several distinct and culturally diverse groups that lived in the area; however, due to the records left by the English colonists, the most is known about the Powhatan Indians of Tsenacomoco. The alliance's six core groups lived along the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers, with their capital, Werowocomoco, situated on the present-day York River. Each constituent group consisted of one or more towns ruled by a weroance, or chief, whose position was inherited matrilineally. For guidance, the weroance consulted his council, or cockarouses, and whenever he acted he was first obligated to seek the approval of his one or more kwiocosuk, or shamans. The mamanatowick, or paramount chief, ruled all of Tsenacomoco and likely combined the authority of weroance and kwiocosuk. He lived an opulent and exalted life—bejeweling himself in necklaces, bracelets, and a crown and traveling with a fifty-man bodyguard—but he was not an absolute ruler. He, too, consulted his council and, lacking a standing army or police force, he was not always able to enforce his will on subordinates. In the end, the ultimate authority in Tsenacomoco was religious, not political. Although the paramount chief was seen to own all of the land and its wealth, the shamans were empowered to intervene with the gods, mollifying them with sacrifices on the occasion of famine, flood, or other disasters.
Fri, 30 May 2014 15:26:54 EST]]>
/Huskanaw Fri, 30 May 2014 13:54:50 EST <![CDATA[Huskanaw]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Huskanaw The huskanaw was a rite of passage by which Virginia Indian boys became men. While such rituals were common among American Indian societies, the huskanaw was conducted by, among others, the Algonquian-speaking Powhatan Indians of Tsenacomoco, an alliance of twenty-eight to thirty-two petty tribes and chiefdoms centered around the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers. Aligning it with various other religious rituals, they referred to the huskanaw as a sacrifice and told the Jamestown colonists that if they did not perform it their powerful god Okee would be angered and disrupt their hunting or cause natural disasters. Although the English colonists at first took this ceremony to be a literal sacrifice of boys, they quickly learned that the term was metaphorical. The word huskanaw refers to the youth of the initiates and to the fact that they were to be transformed into men.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:54:50 EST]]>
/Falwell_Jerry_1933-2007 Tue, 27 May 2014 10:32:37 EST <![CDATA[Falwell, Jerry (1933–2007)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Falwell_Jerry_1933-2007 Jerry Falwell was a fundamentalist Christian pastor and the founder of the Thomas Road Baptist Church and Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia. Best known for his key role in mobilizing the Christian Right into a formidable power in United States politics, Falwell founded the Moral Majority in 1979, a national political organization that emphasized a commitment to a "pro-family" agenda. The Moral Majority achieved prominence very quickly when in 1980 there was a significant surge in evangelical conservative support for the Republican Party nominee for U.S. president, Ronald Reagan, and for Republican, or GOP (Grand Old Party) candidates for the U.S. Congress. Many observers credited Falwell with having played the leading role in energizing these voters to support Reagan and the GOP. After Reagan's landslide win and the Republican successes in the congressional races as well, Falwell and the Moral Majority became prominent, though controversial, fixtures on the U.S. political scene.
Tue, 27 May 2014 10:32:37 EST]]>
/Bryan_Corbin_Braxton_1852-1922 Thu, 22 May 2014 16:37:12 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, C. Braxton (1852–1922)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Corbin_Braxton_1852-1922 C. Braxton Bryan was an Episcopal minister and a proponent of African American education. Between 1893 and 1905, while serving as minister of Saint John's Church in Hampton, he developed an interest in the students at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, which was founded to educate African Americans and Native Americans. At Hampton, Bryan also helped establish Saint Cyprian's Church, the city's first African American Episcopal congregation. Early in 1905 he moved to Petersburg and was elected dean and principal of the Bishop Payne Divinity School, the oldest theological seminary for the education of African American Episcopal clergymen in the South. Bryan, who believed that whites were a superior race, felt that Christian beliefs helped improve the lives of black Virginians and saw the promotion of African American education and spirituality as his responsibility.
Thu, 22 May 2014 16:37:12 EST]]>
/Hancock_Gordon_Blaine_1884-1970 Thu, 01 May 2014 10:12:50 EST <![CDATA[Hancock, Gordon Blaine (1884–1970)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hancock_Gordon_Blaine_1884-1970 Gordon Blaine Hancock was a professor at Virginia Union University, pastor of Moore Street Baptist church in Richmond , and a leading spokesman for African American equality in the generation before the civil rights movement. Hancock co-founded the Richmond chapter of the Urban League and wrote newspaper columns for the Associated Negro Press, advising his mostly black audience on how to get by in tough times while still taking principled stands against segregation. His work with the Virginia Interracial Commission and the Southern Regional Council also suggested his willingness to be both outspoken and pragmatic in the midst of the fight against segregation—a fight, he wrote, that must be won "if the Negro is to survive."
Thu, 01 May 2014 10:12:50 EST]]>
/Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Emily Wayland (1879–1949)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Emily Wayland Dinwiddie was a social worker and reformer. Born in Virginia, she helped to professionalize and systematize social work. She drew on her experience as a tenement inspector in New York, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh to write handbooks, manuals, and forms. In her reports Dinwiddie placed an emphasis on maintaining high standards of public health and sanitation in city tenements. In 1918 she joined the American Red Cross in France, and continued to work for the organization until 1922. Five years later Dinwiddie became director of the Children's Bureau at the Virginia State Board of Public Welfare. She also took a leave of absence to write Virginia State Hospitals for Mental Patients (1934), a comprehensive report of the state's public mental hospitals. Dinwiddie moved to Kansas in 1934 to work for the Emergency Relief Administration. She retired from public service in 1938 and died in Virginia in 1949.
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST]]>
/Jarratt_Devereux_1733-1801 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 08:44:29 EST <![CDATA[Jarratt, Devereux (1733–1801)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jarratt_Devereux_1733-1801 Devereux Jarratt was the rector of Bath Parish in Dinwiddie County and the most influential evangelical leader in Virginia's Anglican Church in the eighteenth century. At a time when critics regarded Virginia's official denomination as lifeless, and many of its parsons as little more than bureaucrats, Jarratt summoned his parishioners to a heartfelt devotion to Christ. He was spurred on by, and also contributed to, the revivals of the Great Awakening in Virginia, which first began in earnest among Presbyterians in the 1740s. Jarratt himself experienced a life-changing conversion early in the 1750s through the ministry of evangelical Presbyterians, although he remained an Anglican throughout his career. In 1775 and 1776, Jarratt and other evangelical preachers helped to generate a massive revival of religion in south-central Virginia, the high point of his nearly forty years in ministry.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 08:44:29 EST]]>
/Dyer_Carrie_Victoria_1839-1921 Sat, 19 Oct 2013 12:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Dyer, Carrie Victoria (1839–1921)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dyer_Carrie_Victoria_1839-1921 Carrie Victoria Dyer was a key founder of Hartshorn Memorial College, an African American Baptist women's college in Richmond that later merged with Virginia Union University. Dyer, who spent her early years in Michigan and Vermont, initially taught black students in Providence, Rhode Island, and Nashville. She and Hartshorn co-founder Lyman Beecher Tefft believed female students were better served by single-sex education, which led to the establishment of the new institution. The college opened in 1883 with Dyer as principal and second in command to Tefft, who served as its president. Dyer also acted as an instructor and spent twenty-nine years as the treasurer of the Rachel Hartshorn Education and Missionary Society. She took over Hartshorn's day-to-day operations for the 1905–1906 term while Tefft was ill. Dyer became dean in 1912 and served for two academic years before she gave up the position to teach one final session. In 1926 money bequeathed by Dyer's estate to the Woman's National Baptist Convention Auxiliary of the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., was used to establish the Carrie V. Dyer Memorial Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia.
Sat, 19 Oct 2013 12:18:15 EST]]>
/Corey_Charles_Henry_1834-1899 Thu, 17 Oct 2013 14:57:45 EST <![CDATA[Corey, Charles Henry (1834–1899)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corey_Charles_Henry_1834-1899 Charles Henry Corey served as president of what became Virginia Union University. Born in New Brunswick, Canada, he entered the United States late in the 1850s to pursue a divinity degree. He preached to Union troops during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and later became active in the American Baptist Home Mission Society, which ministered to freedpeople. In 1868 he took over a fledgling theological school for African Americans in Richmond. The school became the Richmond Institute in 1876, and a decade later it was renamed Richmond Theological Seminary. In 1896 the seminary and the nearby Hartshorn Memorial College, a women's institution, pursued plans to incorporate as Virginia Union University. By May 1897 Wayland Seminary, in Washington, D.C., joined the institution. The merger was formalized in 1900 with the school's reincorporation as Virginia Union University; however, Corey did not live to see the event. His poor health had forced him to resin the presidency in 1898, and he died the following year.
Thu, 17 Oct 2013 14:57:45 EST]]>
/Dabney_Robert_Lewis_1820-1898 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:19:43 EST <![CDATA[Dabney, Robert Lewis (1820–1898)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabney_Robert_Lewis_1820-1898 Robert Lewis Dabney was a Presbyterian minister who, during the American Civil War (1861–1865), emerged as one of the most influential leaders of the southern Presbyterian Church. Born in Louisa County, he was educated at the Union Theological Seminary and served on the school's faculty, becoming chair of theology in 1859 and preaching Calvinist orthodoxy. Dabney opposed secession but served as chaplain to the 18th Virginia Infantry Regiment and, for several months in 1862, as adjutant, or chief of staff, to Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. Ill health forced him to return to the seminary, but he later wrote a biography of Jackson. Dabney was an ardent defender of slavery and the Old South, opposed the Progressive Movement, and was skeptical of modern science. As an important Presbyterian leader in the South, he opposed reunifying the southern church with its northern counterpart. In 1883, he left Virginia to teach at the new University of Texas, in Austin, where he helped to found the Austin School of Theology. He died in Victoria, Texas, in 1898.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:19:43 EST]]>
/Black_Leonard_A_1820-1883 Fri, 09 Aug 2013 11:00:32 EST <![CDATA[Black, Leonard A. (1820–1883)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Leonard_A_1820-1883 Leonard A. Black was a Baptist minister in Norfolk and Petersburg. Born enslaved in Maryland, Black moved to New England in his youth. He became a member of the clergy and wrote his autobiography, The Life and Sufferings of Leonard Black, a Fugitive from Slavery (1847). Black became pastor at Norfolk's First Baptist Church about 1871, and in 1873 became the leader of Petersburg's historic First Baptist Church. He doubled the latter church's membership during his tenure. Black died in Petersburg in 1883, and accounts of his funeral service stated that 5,000 people attended the ceremony.
Fri, 09 Aug 2013 11:00:32 EST]]>
/John_Banister_1649_or_1650-1692 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 12:41:41 EST <![CDATA[Banister, John (1649 or 1650–1692)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Banister_1649_or_1650-1692 John Banister was a naturalist and Anglican minister in the Virginia colony. Born in England, he became interested in North American plants while studying at the University of Oxford. After arriving in Virginia in 1679, he took charge of Bristol Parish, near the mouth of the Appomattox River. Exploring as far west as the Virginia foothills, Banister collected specimens of the colony's flora and fauna, many of which he sent back to England. He was not able to complete his own comprehensive natural history of Virginia, but his numerous lists, notes, and drawings were used by European naturalists in their published works on North American plants and animals. Other naturalists named plants for Banister, and William Houstoun gave the name Banisteria to a class of tropical and subtropical viny plants. In his Species Plantanum (1753), Carolus Linnaeus cited species and specimens that Banister had procured and described. While on a collecting expedition Banister was accidentally killed by one of his traveling companions sometime between May 12 and May 16, 1692.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 12:41:41 EST]]>
/Andros_Sir_Edmund_1637-ca_1714 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:28:06 EST <![CDATA[Andros, Sir Edmund (1637–ca. 1714)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andros_Sir_Edmund_1637-ca_1714 Sir Edmund Andros served as governor of Virginia from 1692 until 1698. Born in London, Andros enjoyed ties to the family of Charles II, served in the army, was appointed governor of New York by the future James II in 1674 and in 1686 of the Dominion of New England. His stay in New England was unpopular enough that he ended up imprisoned before returning to England. During the Glorious Revolution (1688) he supported William of Orange, who appointed him governor of Virginia with the hopes that he would aid New York during King William's War (1689–1697) and raise the salaries of the Anglican clergy. Andros's efforts were hindered by the war's effect on the tobacco trade; when prices fell, so did the salaries of clergymen, who were paid in the crop. Forced to battle with the clergymen's leader, James Blair, Andros raised salaries some but not enough. In the meantime, he subtly extended royal power in Virginia, tying the colony's laws closer to England's. Just staying in power despite a host of political enemies, Andros left office due to poor health, leaving Virginia in 1699. He served as lieutenant governor of Guernsey before dying in England sometime around 1714.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:28:06 EST]]>
/Inter_caetera_by_Pope_Alexander_VI_May_4_1493 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 14:56:28 EST <![CDATA[Inter caetera by Pope Alexander VI (May 4, 1493)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Inter_caetera_by_Pope_Alexander_VI_May_4_1493 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 14:56:28 EST]]> /El_Requerimiento_by_Juan_Lopez_de_Palacios_Rubios_1513 Mon, 18 Mar 2013 14:37:54 EST <![CDATA[El Requerimiento by Juan López de Palacios Rubios (1513)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/El_Requerimiento_by_Juan_Lopez_de_Palacios_Rubios_1513 Mon, 18 Mar 2013 14:37:54 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_October_12_1813 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 13:13:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Adams (October 12, 1813)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_October_12_1813 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 13:13:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Dr_Joseph_Priestley_April_9_1803 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 12:53:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Dr. Joseph Priestley (April 9, 1803)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Dr_Joseph_Priestley_April_9_1803 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 12:53:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ezra_Styles_June_25_1819 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 12:06:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Ezra Stiles Ely (June 25, 1819)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ezra_Styles_June_25_1819 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 12:06:00 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_May_5_1817 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 11:40:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Adams (May 5, 1817)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_May_5_1817 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 11:40:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Danbury_Baptist_Association_January_1_1802 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 11:32:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Danbury Baptist Association (January 1, 1802)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Danbury_Baptist_Association_January_1_1802 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 11:32:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Peter_Carr_August_10_1787 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 09:51:47 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr (August 10, 1787)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Peter_Carr_August_10_1787 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 09:51:47 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Page_May_4_1786 Wed, 05 Dec 2012 13:29:42 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Page (May 4, 1786)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Page_May_4_1786 Wed, 05 Dec 2012 13:29:42 EST]]> /Colored_Shiloh_Baptist_Association Thu, 09 Aug 2012 14:05:19 EST <![CDATA[Colored Shiloh Baptist Association]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Shiloh_Baptist_Association The Colored Shiloh Baptist Association was a union of individual black congregations in central Virginia formed on August 11, 1865, just after the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). A similar association had been formed in Norfolk the year before, but the Richmond-based Colored Shiloh Baptist Association was soon larger and more influential, with both groups helping to provide blacks the opportunity to worship on their own terms.
Thu, 09 Aug 2012 14:05:19 EST]]>
/Jacob_Rowe_Sanctioned_in_Debate_over_Two_Penny_Bill_1758 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 17:27:48 EST <![CDATA[Jacob Rowe Sanctioned in Debate over Two Penny Bill (1758)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jacob_Rowe_Sanctioned_in_Debate_over_Two_Penny_Bill_1758 Debate in the House of Burgesses over the proposed Two Penny Bill turned nasty in September 1758. In the following excerpts from the Journal of the House of Burgesses, the Reverend Jacob Rowe is sanctioned and then apologizes for comments he made in a private conversation that were overhead by burgess William Kennon. The Two Penny Act of 1758 was signed into law by Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier, on behalf of George II, on October 12, 1758. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 17:27:48 EST]]>
/_An_Act_for_Exempting_their_Majestyes_Protestant_Subjects_dissenting_from_the_Church_of_England_from_the_Penalties_of_certaine_Lawes_1688 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:43:20 EST <![CDATA["An Act for Exempting their Majestyes Protestant Subjects dissenting from the Church of England from the Penalties of certaine Lawes" (1688)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_for_Exempting_their_Majestyes_Protestant_Subjects_dissenting_from_the_Church_of_England_from_the_Penalties_of_certaine_Lawes_1688 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:43:20 EST]]> /_To_goe_likewise_abroad_an_excerpt_from_Virginea_Britannia_A_Sermon_Preached_At_White_Chappel_In_The_presence_of_many_the_Adventurers_and_Planters_for_Virginia_by_Reverend_William_Symonds_1609 Mon, 04 Jun 2012 15:40:55 EST <![CDATA["To goe likewise abroad"; an excerpt from Virginea Britannia. A Sermon Preached At White Chappel, In The presence of many the Adventurers, and Planters for Virginia by Reverend William Symonds (1609)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_To_goe_likewise_abroad_an_excerpt_from_Virginea_Britannia_A_Sermon_Preached_At_White_Chappel_In_The_presence_of_many_the_Adventurers_and_Planters_for_Virginia_by_Reverend_William_Symonds_1609 On April 25, 1609, the Reverend William Symonds preached a sermon at London's White Chapel in defense of the Virginia Company of London's efforts to sustain its colony at Jamestown. In this excerpt, Symonds focuses on the call of Abraham in Genesis 12, comparing it to England's call to settle America. He then responds at length to those who object that England had no right to invade "the territories of other princes, by force of sword." Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Mon, 04 Jun 2012 15:40:55 EST]]>
/Query_XVII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Mon, 14 May 2012 15:03:36 EST <![CDATA[Query XVII; an excerpt from Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson (1784)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Query_XVII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Mon, 14 May 2012 15:03:36 EST]]> /An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST <![CDATA[An Act for establishing religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 "An Act for establishing religious Freedom" was drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, introduced into the House of Delegates in 1779, reintroduced in 1785, and finally adopted by the full General Assembly on January 16, 1786. This manuscript version of what has come to be known as the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was signed alongside three other laws on January 19. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST]]>
/Tax_on_Religion_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_1784 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:10:12 EST <![CDATA[Tax on Religion; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (1784)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tax_on_Religion_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_1784 In this excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates, the House adopts a resolution supporting "a moderate tax or contribution, annually," to benefit all Christian sects, including dissenters from the established Church of England. The resolution, which eventually failed, excited such opposition that James Madison was emboldened to reintroduce Thomas Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:10:12 EST]]>
/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST <![CDATA[Debate and Passage of "An act for establishing religious Freedom" in the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia (1785–1786)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 In these excerpts from the Journal of the House of Delegates and the Journal of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Virginia, the General Assembly debates and finally passes the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom, originally drafted by Thomas Jefferson.
Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST]]>
/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST <![CDATA[A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom (1779)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, was introduced to the House of Delegates on June 12, 1779, but eventually tabled. James Madison reintroduced a slightly different version in 1785, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST]]>
/An_act_for_exempting_the_different_societies_of_Dissenters_from_contributing_to_the_support_and_maintenance_of_the_church_as_by_law_established_and_its_ministers_and_for_other_purposes_therein_mentioned_1776 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 11:31:09 EST <![CDATA[An act for exempting the different societies of Dissenters from contributing to the support and maintenance of the church as by law established, and its ministers, and for other purposes therein mentioned (1776)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_exempting_the_different_societies_of_Dissenters_from_contributing_to_the_support_and_maintenance_of_the_church_as_by_law_established_and_its_ministers_and_for_other_purposes_therein_mentioned_1776 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 11:31:09 EST]]> /The_Virginia_Declaration_of_Rights_First_Draft_1776 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 09:47:57 EST <![CDATA[The Virginia Declaration of Rights, First Draft (1776)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Virginia_Declaration_of_Rights_First_Draft_1776 This transcript is of a copy, made in an unknown hand, of the first draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was written by George Mason. The final version of the declaration was incorporated into the state constitution of 1776 and was retained in all subsequent state constitutions. Some spelling has been modernized.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 09:47:57 EST]]>
/_An_Act_to_enable_the_inhabitants_of_this_Colony_to_discharge_their_public_dues_officers_fees_and_other_tobacco_debts_in_money_for_the_ensuing_year_1758 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:45:41 EST <![CDATA["An Act to enable the inhabitants of this Colony to discharge their public dues, officers fees, and other tobacco debts, in money, for the ensuing year" (1758)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_enable_the_inhabitants_of_this_Colony_to_discharge_their_public_dues_officers_fees_and_other_tobacco_debts_in_money_for_the_ensuing_year_1758 In "An Act to enable the inhabitants of this Colony to discharge their public dues, officers fees, and other tobacco debts, in money, for the ensuing year," better known as the Two Penny Act, the General Assembly responded to a second failure of the colony's tobacco crops by again allowing vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier signed the act into law, on behalf of George II, on October 12, 1758.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:45:41 EST]]>
/The_Two_Penny_Act_1755 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:44:20 EST <![CDATA["An act to enable the inhabitants of this colony to discharge their Tobacco debts in money, for this present year" (1755)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Two_Penny_Act_1755 In "An act to enable the inhabitants of this colony to discharge their Tobacco debts in money, for this present year," better known as the Two Penny Act, the General Assembly responded to the failure of the colony's tobacco crops by allowing vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie signed the act into law, on behalf of George II, on November 8, 1755.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:44:20 EST]]>
/Baptists_in_Colonial_Virginia Fri, 20 Jan 2012 13:11:55 EST <![CDATA[Baptists in Colonial Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baptists_in_Colonial_Virginia Baptists during most of the colonial period in Virginia operated on the fringes of the religious mainstream and attracted a mere handful of adherents. Their numbers began to increase modestly in the 1750s, and then more rapidly thereafter, so that by 1790 the state could be described as one of the most "Baptist" places in the country. (At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Baptists collectively comprised the largest religious group in Virginia.) This upsurge, which was bookended by an expansion of Presbyterian and Methodist practices as well, was part of a dramatic transformation in Virginia's religious landscape. The Church of England had enjoyed exclusive legal privileges in the colony from its founding. Dissenters from Anglicanism initially were few, and they operated under significant legal restrictions defined by the 1689 Act for Toleration (which entered Virginia law in 1699). The rise of the Baptists ultimately became entwined with both secular and religious challenges to Anglican monopoly that culminated in disestablishment and the passage of Virginia's 1786 Act for Establishing Religious Freedom, which allowed a gradual evangelical turn in the state at large. Because Virginia was the origin point for many colonial and American migrants moving westward, the expansion of Baptist churches there can be understood as important to rooting the faith in the country at large.
Fri, 20 Jan 2012 13:11:55 EST]]>
/_Letter_to_the_Inhabitants_of_Maryland_Virginia_North_and_South_Carolina_1740 Wed, 18 Jan 2012 09:17:45 EST <![CDATA["Letter to the Inhabitants of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina" (1740)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_to_the_Inhabitants_of_Maryland_Virginia_North_and_South_Carolina_1740 "Letter to the Inhabitants of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina" by the Anglican priest George Whitefield was published in 1740 by Benjamin Franklin in Three Letters from the Reverend Mr. G. Whitefield. An important leader of the First Great Awakening, Whitefield used the occasion to address slave owners in the American South, including Virginia. He chastised them for mistreating their enslaved African Americans and for not attempting to convert them to Christianity. Rather than encourage slaves to run away, Whitefield argued, Christian views would make them better slaves. In the end, Whitefield himself owned a plantation and slaves in South Carolina, but his message of salvation for slaves became typical of white southern evangelicals.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 09:17:45 EST]]>