Encyclopedia Virginia: Memorials and Commemorations http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Robert_Edward_Lee_Sculpture Wed, 20 Mar 2019 15:30:36 EST Robert Edward Lee Sculpture http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robert_Edward_Lee_Sculpture The Robert Edward Lee sculpture depicts the Confederate general astride his horse, Traveller, and serves as the centerpiece of a park in downtown Charlottesville. The work of two artists, one of whom died midway through the project, the bronze statue on a granite pedestal was commissioned in 1917 as a gift to the city of Charlottesville from the philanthropist Paul Goodloe McIntire. It was unveiled on May 21, 1924, in conjunction with the annual reunions of the Virginia divisions of the United Confederate Veterans and the Sons of Confederate Veterans. The last of three statues given to the city by McIntire, the sculpture was created at a time when the City Beautiful Movement had popularized monuments around the country, many of which honored Confederate heritage. It also was a time of strict segregation and racial violence, suggesting to many historians that while these public art pieces remembered the American Civil War (1861–1865), they also responded to the issues of the day. Days before the unveiling, a local chapter of the Ku Klux Klan burned a cross and paraded through Charlottesville. The Lee monument was received by the city as a symbol of loyalty to Virginia and its traditions, but early in the twenty-first century some of those traditions were being questioned. Debates over acknowledging the Confederacy's defense of slavery led to calls for the statue's removal, a lawsuit, and, on August 12, 2017, a white supremacist rally that left three people dead.
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 15:30:36 EST]]>
/United_Daughters_of_the_Confederacy Fri, 11 Jan 2019 16:42:55 EST <![CDATA[United Daughters of the Confederacy]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_Daughters_of_the_Confederacy The United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) was formed in 1894 to protect and venerate Confederate memory following the American Civil War (1861–1865). Through chapters in Virginia and other southern states (and even a handful in the North), members—the descendants of Confederate veterans or those who aided the Confederate cause—directed most of their efforts toward raising funds for Confederate monuments, advancing a "correct" history of the Confederacy, caring for indigent Confederate widows, sponsoring essay contests and fellowships for students, and maintaining Confederate museums and relic collections. An auxiliary group, the Children of the Confederacy, was created in 1898. The context of these efforts was the Lost Cause interpretation of the Civil War, which emphasized states' rights and secession over slavery as causes of the war and was often used to further the goals of white supremacists in the twentieth century. With its national headquarters located in the former Confederate capital of Richmond, the organization continues to perform memorial and benevolent work, although the twenty-first century has brought with it controversy. In 2015 a mass murder in South Carolina by a suspect associated with a neo-Confederate and white supremacist ideology led to national discussions of Confederate memory and calls for monuments, including those erected by the Daughters, to come down. The UDC has defended its statues and distanced itself from hate groups.
Fri, 11 Jan 2019 16:42:55 EST]]>
/Confederacy_Report_from_the_Virginia_Division_of_the_United_Daughters_of_the_1921 Thu, 13 Dec 2018 15:29:05 EST <![CDATA[Report from the Virginia Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy (1921)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederacy_Report_from_the_Virginia_Division_of_the_United_Daughters_of_the_1921 Thu, 13 Dec 2018 15:29:05 EST]]> /Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Mon, 29 Oct 2018 11:04:41 EST <![CDATA[Union Occupation of Charlottesville (1865)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Union cavalry under the command of Philip H. Sheridan occupied Charlottesville and the University of Virginia from March 3 to March 6, 1865, a month before the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). During the previous summer and autumn, Union forces had battled and largely defeated Jubal A. Early's Confederate Army of the Valley. In February 1865, Sheridan's men rode south from Winchester with orders to destroy railroads and possibly take Lynchburg. They arrived in Charlottesville on March 3, and there were met by a delegation of town and university officials, who asked for protection. Union troopers burned a nearby woolen mills but, apart from widespread foraging and some looting, left the town and college intact. In the meantime, many of the area's African Americans, including at least one enslaved directly by the University of Virginia, used the Union occupation to escape their enslavement. Sheridan left Charlottesville on March 6. In the war's aftermath, institutions that were not destroyed, such as the University of Virginia, became especially important in the South, and the school's enrollment and prestige rose steadily. In 2001, a state historical highway marker commemorating the occupation was rewritten to avoid the term "surrender."
Mon, 29 Oct 2018 11:04:41 EST]]>
/Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Tue, 10 Jul 2018 13:34:01 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. in Memory]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Robert E. Lee, a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and president of Washington College in Lexington until his death in 1870, is one of the most revered figures in American history. Lee's place in history is complicated, however, and the way that he has been remembered has changed over time. During his own life, Lee modeled himself after the courtly and self-controlled George Washington and cultivated a sense of himself as a character in a drama and a prisoner of fate. After his death, Lee was less likely to be branded a traitor; instead, he became a symbol of the Lost Cause interpretation of the war, transformed into a crucial agent of sectional reconciliation. The Civil War, according to the Lost Cause, was not about slavery but about states' rights and, ultimately, the honor and bravery of white soldiers on both sides. In this regard, Lee served the needs of not just the Confederacy or of the South, but of all America. The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s encouraged historians to engage a broader social and political canvas when writing about Lee, and this has led some scholars to challenge traditional conclusions about Lee's significance and meaning. Like Washington, Lee is the seminal figure in a transformational moment, but of a different sort. He is the symbol of a vision that failed, and yet also the redeemer of a cause that has lived a long and often tragic afterlife.
Tue, 10 Jul 2018 13:34:01 EST]]>
/Lost_Cause_The Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST <![CDATA[Lost Cause, The]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lost_Cause_The The Lost Cause is an interpretation of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that seeks to present the war, from the perspective of Confederates, in the best possible terms. Developed by white Southerners, many of them former Confederate generals, in a postwar climate of economic, racial, and social uncertainty, the Lost Cause created and romanticized the "Old South" and the Confederate war effort, often distorting history in the process. For this reason, many historians have labeled the Lost Cause a myth or a legend. It is certainly an important example of public memory, one in which nostalgia for the Confederate past is accompanied by a collective forgetting of the horrors of slavery. Providing a sense of relief to white Southerners who feared being dishonored by defeat, the Lost Cause was largely accepted in the years following the war by white Americans who found it to be a useful tool in reconciling North and South. The Lost Cause has lost much of its academic support but continues to be an important part of how the Civil War is commemorated in the South and remembered in American popular culture.
Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST]]>
/Jack_Jouett_s_Ride_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:55:11 EST <![CDATA[Jack Jouett's Ride (1781)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jack_Jouett_s_Ride_1781 On the night of June 3–4, 1781, Jack Jouett rode about forty miles from Louisa County to Charlottesville to warn state officials of the approaching British Army. The British had been threatening Richmond and central Virginia since the spring, and the General Assembly had fled to Charlottesville. On June 3, British cavalry under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton assembled in Louisa County to attack Charlottesville. Jouett noticed them, guessed their intentions, and raced ahead to warn Governor Thomas Jefferson, whose term had just ended, and other members of the state government. The assembly escaped to Staunton while Jefferson retreated to first to Monticello and then, eventually, to his second home at Poplar Forest, leaving Virginia without an elected governor for a few days. The General Assembly honored Jouett's actions and he later moved to Kentucky, where he served in that state's government. His ride, meanwhile, achieved legendary status over the years, at least in Virginia. Over the next two centuries, various histories treated it as an important episode of the American Revolution (1775–1783), although some writers confused Jouett with his father of the same name. (John Jouett, the elder, owned the Swan Tavern in Charlottesville.) Historical highway markers commemorating the event were erected both in Virginia and in Kentucky. And in 1940, the General Assembly of Virginia declared June 4 as Jack Jouett Day. In 2001, perhaps forgetting its early action, the assembly declared Jack Jouett Day to be June 3.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:55:11 EST]]>
/Association_for_the_Preservation_of_Virginia_Antiquities Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Association_for_the_Preservation_of_Virginia_Antiquities Organized in 1889, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA), currently known as APVA/Preservation Virginia, was the nation's first statewide historic preservation organization. Spearheaded by an elite mix of female antiquarians and their "gentlemen advisers," it became a sanctioned instrument of conservatives who strove to counter social and political changes after the American Civil War (1861–1865) by emphasizing southern history and tradition. The APVA enshrined old buildings, graveyards, and historical sites—many of which were forlorn, if not forgotten—and exhibited them as symbols of Virginia's identity. As the national preservation movement evolved, the APVA became less overtly political and now identifies itself as a professional organization dedicated to preserving and promoting the Commonwealth's heritage.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:58:17 EST]]>
/Jamestown_Ter-Centennial_Exposition_of_1907 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:18:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition of 1907]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Ter-Centennial_Exposition_of_1907 The Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, marking the three hundredth anniversary of the founding of Jamestown and the Virginia colony by settlers from England, was held in Norfolk, Virginia, from April 26 to November 30, 1907. The event was one in a series of large fairs and expositions held across the United States, beginning with the 1893 World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago, which commemorated the four hundredth anniversary of Christopher Columbus's landing in America. Such events were designed as international showcases for arts and technology and were often linked to important anniversaries in order to highlight the notion of historical "progress." More than its predecessors, the Jamestown exhibition emphasized athletics and military prowess, the latter drawing some protests. Among many dignitaries who visited the exposition were U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, the author Mark Twain, the educator Booker T. Washington, representatives from more than twenty nations abroad, and a number of foreign naval ships. Although the exhibition on African Americans was considered to be particularly successful, the event in general was a financial fiasco, plagued by poor management, overly ambitious plans, insufficient resources, and tight deadlines. The naval display, however, was impressive enough that in 1917 the exposition's site became home to Naval Air Station Hampton Roads (later Naval Station Norfolk).
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:18:18 EST]]>
/Cox_Lucy_Ann_White_d_December_17_1891 Tue, 10 Mar 2015 13:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Lucy Ann White (d. 1891)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Lucy_Ann_White_d_December_17_1891 Lucy Ann White Cox was a vivandière, or daughter of the regiment, during the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1862 Cox married James A. Cox, a member of Company A of the 30th Virginia Infantry Regiment. She joined his unit in an unofficial capacity, and acted as a cook, laundress, nurse, and general helpmate for the men in Company A for nearly the duration of the war. The 30th Virginia fought most notably in the 1862 Maryland Campaign and at the Battle of Fredericksburg (1862) and during the Petersburg Campaign in 1864. Although few specific details are known about Cox's life, the celebration of her wartime service after her death earned her recognition from many Confederate memorialists. Confederate Veterans and Sons of Confederate Veterans participated in her funeral in 1891. Later, Cox was specifically cited in an 1894 speech calling for the erection of a monument in Richmond to the women of the Confederacy, and the Fredericksburg chapter of the Order of Southern Gray, a Virginia women's Civil War preservation organization, bears her name.
Tue, 10 Mar 2015 13:39:07 EST]]>
/Limber_Jim Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:21:44 EST <![CDATA[Limber, Jim]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Limber_Jim "Jim Limber" or James Henry Brooks—his legal name and his life dates are uncertain—was a free, mixed-race child in the Confederate capital of Richmond during the American Civil War (1861–1865) who lived for slightly more than a year in the household of Confederate president Jefferson Davis. Contemporary accounts suggest that he enjoyed an intimate relationship with the Davis family, leading some modern observers to make unverified claims that he was "adopted" and effectively became a member of the family. In the beginning of the twenty-first century, the child has become a symbol of the Confederate first family's supposed liberality on racial issues.
Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:21:44 EST]]>
/Colonial_Williamsburg Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:41:45 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Williamsburg]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Williamsburg Colonial Williamsburg is the restored and reconstructed historic area of Williamsburg, Virginia, a small city between the York and James rivers that was founded in 1632, designated capital of the English colony in 1698, and bestowed with a royal charter in 1722. It was a center of political activity before and during the American Revolution (1775–1783)—where George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry debated taxes, slavery, and the inalienable rights of men—and has since become the site of an ambitious restoration project launched in the 1930s and funded largely by the family of John D. Rockefeller Jr. With many of its historic structures rebuilt and with "interpreters" reenacting eighteenth-century life, Colonial Williamsburg has become a landmark in the history of the American preservation movement. More than that, though, the project serves as a self-conscious shrine of American ideals. The history and legacy of slavery, once downplayed at Williamsburg, is now dealt with openly—interpreters are both white and African American—but the focus remains on what the site's originators called "healthful" information about democracy, freedom, and representative government.
Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:41:45 EST]]>
/Civil_War_Battlefield_Preservation Thu, 20 Sep 2012 08:30:23 EST <![CDATA[Civil War Battlefield Preservation]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Civil_War_Battlefield_Preservation Though Virginia has always been considered a focal point of the American Civil War (1861–1865), battlefield preservation in the state initially lagged far behind other areas. Virginia witnessed the greatest number of battles, engagements, and skirmishes, not only because of its geographic location but also because it was home to the Confederate capital in Richmond. Moreover, most of the postwar historiographical disputes, at least in the decades just after the war, focused on Virginia battles and Virginia generals, especially Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. That Virginia battlefields fell decades behind others in Civil War battlefield preservation is ironic, then, even startling. Major battleground states, such as Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia, and even other Eastern Theater states, such as Maryland and Pennsylvania, saw their battlefields preserved comparatively soon after the war. Despite success in other areas to memorialize the war, such as establishing the Museum of the Confederacy and erecting memorial statues along Monument Avenue, both in Richmond, it took sixty years to establish the first park in Virginia. The history of Civil War battlefield preservation can be subdivided into four major generations. The first was characterized by limited, disjointed, and individual efforts on the part of the veterans themselves, with some specialized help from state and federal governments. The second generation, labeled the "Golden Age of Battlefield Preservation," began in 1890 and saw five major parks established by the federal government. The third generation, which began in the mid- to late 1920s after a lull of some thirty years, was marked by an initial flurry of activity that steadily dwindled over the decades. A resurgent fourth generation has recently emerged, with the Civil War Preservation Trust leading the way.
Thu, 20 Sep 2012 08:30:23 EST]]>
/Historical_Highway_Marker_Program Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:14:41 EST <![CDATA[Historical Highway Marker Program]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Historical_Highway_Marker_Program Established in 1926, Virginia's Historical Highway Marker Program is one of the oldest in the nation. Originally intended to commemorate such traditional subjects as military events, colonial home sites, and prominent Virginians from early American society, topics today range from authors and musicians to architecture, transportation, and industry, and include significant people, places, and events from all segments of Virginia history and society. Early in the twenty-first century, the Virginia Department of Historic Resources, which administers the highway marker program, led a special effort to fund and create new markers honoring African Americans, Virginia Indians, and women, as well as significant places and events related to their accomplishments, in order to represent the scope of Virginia history more completely. There are more than 2,000 markers installed throughout the state, with twenty to forty new markers added every year. New markers are established through a process whereby an applicant (an individual or a group) submits a marker proposal to the Department of Historic Resources. An editorial committee researches and reviews the written proposal and the draft marker text for accuracy and appropriate significance, then DHR staff formally present the marker proposal to the Board of Historic Resources, which must approve all new state historical markers. Once a marker is approved, an order for its manufacture is sent to a foundry for casting. The marker is then shipped, in most cases, to the appropriate local office of the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) for installation. Thereafter, except for markers in a few municipalities, the marker is maintained by VDOT, an important partner in the historical highway marker program.
Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:14:41 EST]]>
/Honorary_Virginians Mon, 17 Sep 2012 09:56:44 EST <![CDATA[Honorary Virginians]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Honorary_Virginians Mon, 17 Sep 2012 09:56:44 EST]]> /Ladies_Memorial_Associations Thu, 08 Mar 2012 15:56:38 EST <![CDATA[Ladies' Memorial Associations]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ladies_Memorial_Associations Ladies' Memorial Associations were locally organized groups of southern white women who, following the American Civil War (1861–1865), tracked down the scattered remains of Confederate soldiers and reinterred them in Confederate cemeteries. Following Robert E. Lee's surrender in April 1865, more than 260,000 Confederate war dead were buried throughout the South, a majority of them in Virginia. Most of these soldiers would not be returned home; instead, they eventually would be placed in Confederate cemeteries. But these cities of the dead were not to be furnished by the federal or state governments; neither were they to be organized by Confederate veterans. Instead, the associations created Confederate cemeteries, which served as final resting places for approximately 80 percent of the fallen soldiers.
Thu, 08 Mar 2012 15:56:38 EST]]>
/Jamestown_350th_Anniversary_1957 Wed, 18 Jan 2012 15:52:23 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown 350th Anniversary, 1957]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_350th_Anniversary_1957 In 1957, Virginia hosted an eight-month-long celebration known as the "Jamestown Festival" to commemorate the 350th anniversary of the founding of the colony at Jamestown. Organized through the efforts of the Virginia 350th Anniversary Commission the festival emphasized the key role that Jamestown, as the first permanent English settlement in North America, played in American history. The event drew national and international attention to the state, and brought more than a million visitors to the Jamestown area, including then-U.S. vice president Richard Nixon and Queen Elizabeth II of England. It also suffered from the limitations of its day, namely the failure to take into account more fully the perspectives of Virginia Indians and African Americans.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 15:52:23 EST]]>
/Museum_of_the_Confederacy Wed, 18 Jan 2012 10:19:39 EST <![CDATA[Museum of the Confederacy]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Museum_of_the_Confederacy The Museum of the Confederacy opened in the former Confederate capital of Richmond in 1896 as the Confederate Museum. One of Richmond's oldest museums, it is the only institution in Virginia that began as a Confederate shrine and transformed itself into a modern history museum. The museum was a preservation effort on two levels: it rescued from destruction the former Confederate executive mansion and displayed in the mansion's rooms the artifacts—"relics" as they were called in the 1890s—of Confederate soldiers and civilians from the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the postwar Lost Cause era.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 10:19:39 EST]]>
/National_D-Day_Memorial Tue, 23 Nov 2010 12:01:14 EST <![CDATA[National D-Day Memorial]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/National_D-Day_Memorial The National D-Day Memorial is a congressionally approved national war memorial in Bedford, Virginia, honoring the American GIs who participated in the invasion of France at Normandy on June 6, 1944, during World War II (1939–1945). Dedicated on June 6, 2001, by United States president George W. Bush and receiving as many as 100,000 visitors per year, the memorial is remarkable for its stone arch that rises nearly forty-five feet in the air. The structure's six components correspond, often in directly representational ways, to the planning and execution of Operation Overlord, the largest invasion in history. Conceived by Roanoke native and D-Day veteran J. Robert "Bob" Slaughter, the memorial is located in Bedford partly for symbolic reasons: the Virginia town lost nineteen of its men engaged that day, all members of Company A, 29th Infantry Division, possibly the largest per capita loss of any town in America on that day. (Four more Bedford soldiers died later in the campaign.) Although Slaughter had originally envisioned something modest, the project turned into a $25 million colossus that resulted in the memorial foundation's bankruptcy in 2002 and two federal fraud indictments against its executive director, Richard B. Burrow. Two trials ended in hung juries, and charges against Burrow were dismissed in October 2004.
Tue, 23 Nov 2010 12:01:14 EST]]>