Encyclopedia Virginia: Colleges and Universities http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Letter_to_Mr_Winkfield_Virginia_Gazette_November_30_1775 Tue, 13 Aug 2019 09:37:07 EST Letter to Mr. Winkfield, Virginia Gazette (November 30, 1775) http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_to_Mr_Winkfield_Virginia_Gazette_November_30_1775 Tue, 13 Aug 2019 09:37:07 EST]]> /_At_a_convocation_of_the_visitors_of_the_college_of_William_and_Mary_December_18_1779 Mon, 12 Aug 2019 12:12:14 EST <![CDATA["At a convocation of the visitors of the college of William and Mary," (December 18, 1779)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_At_a_convocation_of_the_visitors_of_the_college_of_William_and_Mary_December_18_1779 Mon, 12 Aug 2019 12:12:14 EST]]> /Slavery_at_the_College_of_William_and_Mary Fri, 26 Jul 2019 09:48:25 EST <![CDATA[Slavery at the College of William and Mary]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_at_the_College_of_William_and_Mary The College of William and Mary utilized the labor of enslaved African Americans from the earliest days of its construction, in 1695, until the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865), when the school suspended classes. Enslaved laborers built the college's main building, the Brafferton, and the President's House, and later performed the duties of taking care of the school, its professors, and its students. Besides those it directly enslaved, the college depended on the forced labor of those being hired out from other owners. Although documentation of their lives is scarce, it's clear they kept student rooms and classrooms clean, served meals, shined shoes, rang the bell, ran errands, cut wood,performed maintenance and repairs, and gardened. Enslaved people were subject to often harsh discipline and abuse by faculty, staff, and students, who often viewed them as lazy, incompetent, and inferior to whites. During the American Revolution (1775–1783), many slaves were sold when the college's finances became precarious. From about 1760 into the early Federalist period, intellectual skepticism about slavery was strong, but by the middle of the nineteenth century, a proslavery ideology had taken hold and was promulgated. In 2009, the College of William and Mary established the Lemon Project, charged with documenting the institution's complicity in slavery and its aftereffects. The college officially apologized for that complicity in 2018.
Fri, 26 Jul 2019 09:48:25 EST]]>
/Bracken_John_bap_1747-1818 Thu, 16 May 2019 17:31:32 EST <![CDATA[Bracken, John (bap. 1747–1818)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bracken_John_bap_1747-1818 Thu, 16 May 2019 17:31:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_Michie_to_David_Watson_December_21_1797 Wed, 15 May 2019 08:41:51 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert Michie to David Watson (December 21, 1797)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_Michie_to_David_Watson_December_21_1797 Wed, 15 May 2019 08:41:51 EST]]> /Slave_Sale_Advertisement_Virginia_Gazette_November_28_1777 Fri, 10 May 2019 13:48:49 EST <![CDATA[Slave Sale Advertisement, Virginia Gazette (November 28, 1777)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Sale_Advertisement_Virginia_Gazette_November_28_1777 Fri, 10 May 2019 13:48:49 EST]]> /Royal_Charter_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_February_8_1693 Thu, 09 May 2019 16:01:30 EST <![CDATA[Royal Charter of the College of William and Mary (February 8, 1693)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Royal_Charter_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_February_8_1693 Thu, 09 May 2019 16:01:30 EST]]> /Chairman_s_Journal_for_Session_of_1836-7_September_3 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:04:41 EST <![CDATA[Chairman's Journal for Session of 1836–7 (September 3 - November 22, 1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chairman_s_Journal_for_Session_of_1836-7_September_3 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:04:41 EST]]> /Martin_Henry_1826-1915 Mon, 29 Oct 2018 11:36:39 EST <![CDATA[Martin, Henry (1826–1915)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Martin_Henry_1826-1915 Henry Martin was the head janitor and bell-ringer at the University of Virginia from at least 1868 until his retirement in 1909. Born enslaved at Monticello, he was purchased by the Carr family and before the American Civil War (1861–1865) labored at a boardinghouse on what came to be known as Carr's Hill, near the University of Virginia. During the war he tended the wounded at the military hospital in Charlottesville. In 1866 he was hired by the university to haul coal and by 1868 was working as the head janitor and bell-ringer. He worked at the school for more than four decades, becoming a well-known figure there but one who was treated in the context of the Lost Cause archetype of the faithful servant. He died in 1915.
Mon, 29 Oct 2018 11:36:39 EST]]>
/Anatomical_Theatre Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:18:02 EST <![CDATA[Anatomical Theatre]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anatomical_Theatre The Anatomical Theatre was designed by Thomas Jefferson and erected on the grounds of the University of Virginia in 1825–1826. It was used for anatomy instruction and the storage of cadavers. Jefferson had long prioritized medical education in his plans for the university, but when Robley Dunglison, the first professor of anatomy, arrived in 1825, he found that his pavilion's teaching space was inconvenient for the dissection of cadavers. Inspired by Renaissance architecture and the work of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Jefferson designed a square, three-story building that housed a skylit, octagonal surgical theater on the top floor. The Anatomical Theatre opened for classes in 1827 and was the subject of periodic construction and renovations in subsequent decades. In 1837, a one-story brick Anatomical Laboratory was built behind it and used only for dissections. Enslaved labor helped construct and later clean the theater, with university records referencing a man known as Anatomical Lewis, who served as custodian from 1839 to 1857. In order to acquire cadavers for dissection, professors such as John Staige Davis, who taught from 1847 until his death in 1885, relied on grave robbers who stole mostly African American corpses. The building fell into disuse after the opening of the University of Virginia Hospital in 1901 and briefly served as home to the School of Rural Economics. It was razed in 1939 to improve views of the new Alderman Library. It is the only Jefferson-designed building at the university to have been torn down.
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:18:02 EST]]>
/Meeting_Minutes_of_University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_4-5_Oct_1824_October_4_1824 Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:46:34 EST <![CDATA[Meeting Minutes of University of Virginia Board of Visitors, 4–5 Oct. 1824 (October 4, 1824)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_Minutes_of_University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_4-5_Oct_1824_October_4_1824 Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:46:34 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_Riot_of_1836 Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:35:03 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Riot of 1836]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Riot_of_1836 The University of Virginia Riot of 1836 occurred on November 12–13 of that year when members of the student drilling company, the University Volunteers, commandeered the Rotunda and marched through the university's grounds, destroying property. In some respects, the violence was the culmination of a decade of misbehavior among students who hailed from elite backgrounds, were bound by an honor culture, and were unchecked by a university founded on the belief that its charges could police themselves. The University Volunteers were allowed to drill with muskets only during specially sanctioned exercises, but in 1836 the company began ignoring the rules. When the faculty chairman, John A. G. Davis, threatened to disband the group, the Volunteers defied authority, each pledging an oath of solidarity to one another. That promise bound members of the group even when some wavered in the face of violence and expulsion. Students rioted for two nights, focusing much of their ire on Davis, who called in civilian law enforcement to restore order. After debating how to handle punishments, the faculty voted to allow members of the Volunteers to remain at the university if they made "proper atonement" for the participation in the riots. Riots continued to occur in subsequent years, and the anniversary of the 1836 disturbance was marked with mischief, revelry, and, in 1840, murder, when Davis was shot dead.
Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:35:03 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_August_27_1825 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:09:48 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge (August 27, 1825)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_August_27_1825 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:09:48 EST]]> /From_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Carrington_Cabell_February_4_1826 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:05:45 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Carrington Cabell (February 4, 1826)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/From_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Carrington_Cabell_February_4_1826 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:05:45 EST]]> /Harrison_Gessner_1807-1862 Fri, 02 Feb 2018 17:17:35 EST <![CDATA[Harrison, Gessner (1807–1862)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harrison_Gessner_1807-1862 Gessner Harrison was a professor of ancient languages at the University of Virginia from 1828 to 1859, the first graduate of the university to join the faculty. Born in Harrisonburg, he hailed from a learned and political family, and, in 1825, became the fifth student to register at the new University of Virginia. Harrison's sincerity and religious conviction appeared to have impressed Thomas Jefferson, with whom he was invited to dine, and he became a professor when he was just twenty-one years old. What impressed Jefferson, however, did not always impress his students who, early in Harrison's career, attacked him on multiple occasions, once with a horsewhip. Harrison, who had earned a degree in medicine, eventually came to earn respect as a classics scholar, and he served as faculty chairman three times (1837–1839, 1840–1842, 1847–1854). In 1859, he resigned from the university to establish a school for boys. The beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865) took most of his students away and the school closed when Harrison died in 1862.
Fri, 02 Feb 2018 17:17:35 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Captain_Wagner_May_4_1868 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:51:15 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Captain Wagner (May 4, 1868)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Captain_Wagner_May_4_1868 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:51:15 EST]]> /Virginia_Tech_Shootings Wed, 03 Jan 2018 15:12:08 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Tech Shootings]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Tech_Shootings On April 16, 2007, Seung-Hui Cho, a senior at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, also known as Virginia Tech, in Blacksburg, shot and killed twenty-seven students and five faculty members, and injured more than seventeen others before killing himself. At the time it was the largest mass shooting in contemporary American history perpetrated by a single gunman. Cho was born in South Korea and immigrated to the United States with his family, which settled in Centreville. He had a history of emotional and mental health problems dating to early childhood, but his parents said they were unaware that serious troubles had begun at Virginia Tech. A series of disturbing incidents led to a 2005 hearing in which he was ordered to outpatient treatment, which he never received. Despite this and other warning signs, there was no concerted follow-up by campus or mental health authorities as Cho's condition deteriorated and he plotted mass murder. The attacks raised many questions associated with gun violence, from missed mental health signals to the availability of weapons and campus safety. Governor Timothy M. Kaine immediately appointed a panel to review the shootings and response, and make recommendations by the beginning of the 2007–2008 school year. The tragedy led to lasting reforms in how campuses in Virginia and across the nation regarded safety issues. But advocates for gun safety and those seeking a sustained focus on improving mental health services regard those efforts as having come up short. Many family and community members expressed continued disappointment with what they perceived to be the university's lack of accountability. All of the injured students, however, returned to graduate.
Wed, 03 Jan 2018 15:12:08 EST]]>
/Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Mon, 18 Dec 2017 13:58:52 EST <![CDATA[Wythe, George (1726 or 1727–1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 George Wythe was a member of the House of Burgesses (1754–1755, 1758, 1761–1766) and the Conventions of 1776, 1787, 1788, a member of the Second Continental Congress during the American Revolution (1775–1783), Speaker of the House of Delegates (1777–1778), and judge of the High Court of Chancery (1778–1806). His signature is first among Virginians on the Declaration of Independence. Born in Elizabeth City County, Wythe was educated by his mother and read the law under the guidance of an uncle, eventually building a lucrative practice in Williamsburg, where he mentored a young Thomas Jefferson. He supported independence during the Revolution and served on a General Assembly committee with Jefferson and others charged with revising Virginia's laws. In 1778, the assembly elected Wythe to serve on the newly created High Court of Chancery, where he stayed the rest of his life, even after receiving offers of seats on higher courts. He twice used his position to rule that slavery was unconstitutional, including in Pleasants v. Pleasants (1799), but was twice overruled by the Court of Appeals. He later freed his own slaves. From 1780 to 1789 he taught law at the College of William and Mary, becoming the first law professor at any American university; John Marshall was one of his students. He served briefly in the U.S. Constitutional Convention and then appealed for its ratification in Virginia. Wythe died in Richmond in 1806, likely poisoned by his great-nephew, George Wythe Sweeney Jr.
Mon, 18 Dec 2017 13:58:52 EST]]>
/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_9_1836 Mon, 20 Nov 2017 16:31:44 EST <![CDATA[Meeting of the Faculty (November 9, 1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_9_1836 Mon, 20 Nov 2017 16:31:44 EST]]> /Meeting_of_the_Faculty_May_22_1830 Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:29:48 EST <![CDATA[Meeting of the Faculty (May 22, 1830)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_May_22_1830 Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:29:48 EST]]> /Davis_John_Staige_1824-1885 Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:59:10 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John Staige (1824–1885)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_Staige_1824-1885 John Staige Davis was a professor of medicine at the University of Virginia from 1847 until 1885. Born in Albemarle County, he was the son of John A. G. Davis, a law professor at the university who was shot and killed by a student there in 1840. The younger Davis practiced medicine in western Virginia before joining the faculty himself in 1847. Preferring a practical approach to anatomy instruction, and thwarted by a Virginia law that prohibited the disinterment of dead bodies, he resorted to grave robbing. Most of the bodies came from African American and pauper cemeteries, others from executed convicts. In 1859, Davis requested the bodies of men sentenced to be hanged after John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry but received none. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Davis served as a Confederate surgeon in Charlottesville. He died in 1885.
Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:59:10 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (July 4–7, 1840)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_The_Architecture_of_the Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:49:05 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia, The Architecture of the]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_The_Architecture_of_the As Thomas Jefferson's last major contribution to American public life, the University of Virginia combined his deepest civic and personal passions: democracy, architecture, and the dissemination of knowledge. Springing from concepts developed in his early years as a politician and gentleman architect, Jefferson's design for the university, which he called the "Academical Village," was a large, complicated composition based in the rules and monuments of classical architecture. Tightly organized around a U-shaped, terraced lawn with a library at its head, Jefferson's university combined faculty and student housing, classrooms, dining halls, and utility spaces into a relatively self-sustaining complex. Understood even by its founder as a place that would have to adapt to changing needs and a growing population, the university was amended and reconsidered throughout the nineteenth century, until a massive fire in 1895 allowed for a substantial reorientation of Jefferson's initial vision by the New York architecture firm of McKim, Mead, and White. Over the course of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, however, attempts to alter and preserve the Academical Village have been far more cautious.
Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:49:05 EST]]>
/Shooting_Victims_of_the_Virginia_Tech_Mass_2007 Mon, 06 Nov 2017 16:12:15 EST <![CDATA[Shooting, Victims of the Virginia Tech Mass (2007)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shooting_Victims_of_the_Virginia_Tech_Mass_2007 Mon, 06 Nov 2017 16:12:15 EST]]> /Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_12_1836 Thu, 02 Nov 2017 11:53:28 EST <![CDATA[Meeting of the Faculty (November 12, 1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_12_1836 Thu, 02 Nov 2017 11:53:28 EST]]> /_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin" by David M. R. Culbreth, The University of Virginia: Memories of Her Student-Life and Professors (1908)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST]]> /_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST <![CDATA["Funeral of Henry Martin," Charlottesville Daily Progress (October 9, 1915)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST]]> /_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin, 1826–1915" by John S. Patton, Alumni Bulletin (October 1915)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST]]> /_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST <![CDATA["Uncle Henry: Bell-Ringer, A Dramatic Monologue," Corks and Curls (1914)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST]]> /Schele_de_Vere_Maximilian_1820-1898 Wed, 26 Apr 2017 13:04:09 EST <![CDATA[Schele De Vere, Maximilian (1820–1898)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Schele_de_Vere_Maximilian_1820-1898 Maximilian Schele De Vere was a professor of modern languages at the University of Virginia and a founding member of the American Philological Society. Born in Sweden, likely with the surname von Scheele, he later changed his name, possibly after marrying an Irish woman named De Vere. After studying languages in Germany, Schele De Vere edited a German-language newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and then studied Greek at Harvard. In 1844, he joined the faculty at the University of Virginia, teaching there for more than fifty years. He supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865), serving as captain of a home guard unit. Before and after the war he published regularly, including translations, collections of essays, and textbooks. He resigned his teaching position in 1895 amid accusations he had sent libelous letters to another professor and the chair of the faculty. He also may have become addicted to morphine taken to control back pain. Schele De Vere died in Washington, D.C., in 1898.
Wed, 26 Apr 2017 13:04:09 EST]]>
/Barbour_B_Johnson_1821-1894 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:39:25 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, B. Johnson (1821–1894)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_B_Johnson_1821-1894 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:39:25 EST]]> /An_act_ascertaining_the_place_for_erecting_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_February_8_1693 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:48:37 EST <![CDATA[An act ascertaining the place for erecting the College of William and Mary in Virginia (February 8, 1693)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_ascertaining_the_place_for_erecting_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_February_8_1693 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:48:37 EST]]> /The_Statutes_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_1758 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:36:35 EST <![CDATA[The Statutes of the College of William and Mary in Virginia (1758)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Statutes_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_1758 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:36:35 EST]]> /Everett_John_R_1918-1992 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:04:34 EST <![CDATA[Everett, John R. (1918–1992)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Everett_John_R_1918-1992 John R. Everett presided over Hollins College (later Hollins University) from 1950 until 1960. Reportedly the nation's youngest college president when he assumed the office, he established a new curriculum and oversaw the near doubling of Hollins's student body and faculty. Everett also instituted a study abroad program. He left Virginia to become the first chancellor of the Municipal College System of the City of New York and later spent nearly two decades as president of the New School for Social Research (later the New School) in New York City. He died in 1992. A scholarship was established in his name at Hollins following his retirement.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:04:34 EST]]>
/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST <![CDATA[Blair, James (ca. 1655–1743)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 James Blair was an Anglican minister, a notoriously combative member of the governor's Council (1694–1695; 1696–1697; 1701–1743) who worked successfully to have three governors removed, and, with Francis Nicholson, the cofounder of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Scotland, Blair came to Virginia in 1685 as rector of Henrico Parish. He married, acquired land, and in 1689 became commissary, or the Anglican bishop's representative in America. Blair's clerical convocations in 1690, 1705, and 1719 were notoriously rancorous in part due to his tendency to sympathize more with the laity than his fellow clerics; however, the 1690 meeting proved especially significant for Blair's "Seven Propositions," which led to the founding of the College of William and Mary. As president for life, Blair secured funding and overcame powerful opposition from men like Virginia governor Sir Edmund Andros. In the meantime, Blair consolidated his own power by becoming rector of James City Parish in Williamsburg, and in 1698 he successfully fought to have Andros removed. Over the years, Blair did the same to two more governors while continually expanding his college. By the 1720s he had rebuilt the school after a fire; housed an Indian school, chapel, library, and president's house; drafted the first college statutes; hired the first full-time faculty; and transferred the original charter to the president and masters. Blair died in Williamsburg in 1743.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST]]>
/Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, Frances (1909–1993)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Frances Farmer was a law librarian and the first female law professor at the University of Virginia. Born in Charlotte County, Farmer studied history and then law before becoming a law librarian at the University of Richmond in 1938 and the University of Virginia in 1942. She took charge of cataloguing and then greatly expanding the School of Law's collection, helping to develop the school's alumni association as a fund-raising tool. In 1959, she served a one-year term as president of the American Association of Law Libraries. Four years later she was elected to the general faculty and, in 1969, made a full professor. During her tenure the law library grew from fewer than 40,000 to more than 300,000 volumes. Farmer retired in 1976 and died in 1993.
Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST]]>
/Blaettermann_George_1782-1850 Thu, 28 Apr 2016 08:12:34 EST <![CDATA[Blaettermann, George (1782–1850)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blaettermann_George_1782-1850 Thu, 28 Apr 2016 08:12:34 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War_The Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:49:10 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia During the Civil War, The]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War_The The University of Virginia, near Charlottesville, remained open during the American Civil War (1861–1865), graduating few students and struggling to maintain its facilities. At the start of the war, its students strongly supported secession, and more than 500 of the school's 600 enrollees in 1861 eventually served in the Confederate military. More than 2,000 alumni joined them, and by 1865, 500 men associated with the university had died in the conflict. A few graduates fought for the Union, including Bernard Gaines Farrar Jr., who became a general of U.S. volunteers. Only a few dozen students attended the university in any given year during the war, and the university was unsuccessful in preventing some of those from being drafted into Confederate service in 1863. The university's facilities, meanwhile, suffered from lack of use and upkeep. The Rotunda building briefly held patients of the Charlottesville General Hospital, a military medical center whose superintendent, J. L. Cabell, was a faculty member. In March 1865, Union cavalrymen under George A. Custer briefly occupied the university, but damage proved minimal. After the war, enrollment levels took decades to recover, while the university did much to honor those students who had fought and died for the Confederacy. By contrast, Unionists were largely ignored.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:49:10 EST]]>
/Cabell_Joseph_C_1778-1856 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:08:30 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, Joseph C. (1778–1856)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_Joseph_C_1778-1856 Joseph C. Cabell was member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810, 1831–1835) and the Senate of Virginia (1810–1829) and served as president of the James River and Kanawha Company (1835–1846). He also served as rector of the University of Virginia from 1834 to 1836 and again from 1845 to 1856. Born in Amherst County, Cabell studied law, including under St. George Tucker, whose stepdaughter he later married. Rather than practice, he embarked on a political career as a Jeffersonian Republican. He made little mark in the General Assembly, however, until in 1815 his friend Thomas Jefferson tapped him to lead the legislative fight to charter and fund Central College, or what later became the University of Virginia. Cabell successfully argued both for the need of a state university and for its establishment near Charlottesville. After his retirement from the assembly, Cabell leveraged his interest in economic development into leadership of the James River and Kanawha Company, which sought to build a canal between Richmond and the Ohio River. The canal reached only as far as Buchanan, in Botetourt County, and Cabell resigned the company's presidency in 1846. He died at his plantation in Nelson County a decade later.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:08:30 EST]]>
/Bonnycastle_Charles_1796-1840 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:33:31 EST <![CDATA[Bonnycastle, Charles (1796–1840)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bonnycastle_Charles_1796-1840 Charles Bonnycastle was a professor of natural philosophy and mathematics at the University of Virginia from 1825 until his death in 1840. Born in England, Bonnycastle was the son of a mathematics professor at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. Bonnycastle himself attended the academy and contributed to his father's noted textbook. In 1824 he accepted an offer to join the faculty at the newly established University of Virginia, teaching natural philosophy and later mathematics and engineering. Bonnycastle proved an effective teacher, using updated pedagogy designed to engage beginning students and, in 1834, publishing his own textbook, Inductive Geometry. He died in 1840.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:33:31 EST]]>
/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST <![CDATA[Breckinridge, James (1763–1833)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 James Breckinridge was member of the House of Delegates (1789–1791, 1796–1802, 1806–1808, 1819–1821, 1823–1824), the U.S. House of Representatives (1809–1817), and the board of visitors of the University of Virginia (1819–1833). Born near what is now Fincastle in what was then southern Augusta County, Breckinridge came from a powerful family. (His brother John Breckinridge served in the U.S. Senate and as U.S. attorney general.) After serving during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783), Breckinridge studied law under George Wythe, then opened a practice in Fincastle and began his long political career. He served several terms in the House of Delegates before being elected to Congress as a Federalist in 1809. Although he opposed war with Britain in 1812 he led the militia as a brigadier general, helping to shore up defenses around Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. Breckinridge served four terms in the House of Representatives and then returned to the House of Delegates in 1819. That same year he was appointed to the board of visitors of the newly established University of Virginia, serving until his death. Breckinridge lived on a large farm, Grove Hill, in Botetourt County, but also speculated in land and had a diverse set of business interests. He died at Grove Hill in 1833.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_5-6_1865 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:14:31 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (July 5–6, 1865)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_5-6_1865 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:14:31 EST]]> /Central_College_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_7_1817 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:12:44 EST <![CDATA[Central College Board of Visitors Minutes (October 7, 1817)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Central_College_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_7_1817 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:12:44 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_4-5_1824 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:11:23 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (October 4–5, 1824)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_4-5_1824 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:11:23 EST]]> /Slavery_at_the_University_of_Virginia Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:55:46 EST <![CDATA[Slavery at the University of Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_at_the_University_of_Virginia The University of Virginia utilized the labor of enslaved African Americans from the earliest days of its construction, in 1817, until the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Most of the university's first enslaved laborers were rented from local landowners and worked alongside whites and free blacks in performing all the tasks associated with building what the school's founder, Thomas Jefferson, called the Academical Village. In March 1825, the first students arrived and African Americans transitioned to working in the pavilions, hotels, and the Rotunda; maintaining classrooms, laboratories, and the library; ringing the bell; and serving the daily needs of students and faculty. While faculty were allowed to bring personal slaves on Grounds, as the university campus was called, students were not—a reflection, perhaps, of Jefferson's view that slavery raised the young in habits of tyranny. Students nevertheless tended to treat the university's slaves poorly, at times even attacking them. The university's response to such behavior was inconsistent. Although the men who founded the university were ambivalent about slavery, over time students and faculty alike tended to take a harder line in favor of the institution. When the slaves were freed in 1865, the faculty was not, as a group, inclined to help them. The university hired many of its former slaves to work their previous jobs but never articulated a formal policy regarding the newly freed men and women.
Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:55:46 EST]]>
/Emory_and_Henry_College_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Emory and Henry College during the Civil War]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Emory_and_Henry_College_During_the_Civil_War Emory and Henry College, located in the town of Emory in Washington County, is the oldest college in southwestern Virginia and was attended by the future Confederate cavalry general J. E. B. Stuart. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the school was closed while many of its students fought in the Confederate army, and the Confederate government used its buildings to establish the Emory Confederate States Hospital. After the nearby Battle of Saltville in October 1864, wounded Union soldiers, including members of the 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry, were treated there. On the morning of October 3, Confederate soldiers reportedly killed several black troopers and their white lieutenant in what has come to be known as the "Saltville Massacre."
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:44:05 EST]]>
/Washington_College_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:31:45 EST <![CDATA[Washington College during the Civil War]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_College_During_the_Civil_War Washington College in Lexington, Rockbridge County, Virginia, was a small but lively liberal arts college in the Shenandoah Valley. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), its students largely supported Virginia's secession from the Union while its older faculty members, including the Presbyterian clergyman Dr. George Junkin, the father-in-law of future Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, were staunch Unionists. A company of infantry formed at the school became part of the Stonewall Brigade. In June 1864, during the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864, Union general David Hunter entered Lexington and ransacked the college. In an effort to rejuvenate the college following the war, the Board of Trustees hired former Confederate general Robert E. Lee to serve as college president, which he did until his death in 1870.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:31:45 EST]]>
/Virginia_Military_Institute_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:25:22 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Military Institute during the Civil War]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Military_Institute_During_the_Civil_War The Virginia Military Institute (VMI) is a state-funded military academy founded in 1839. Located in the Shenandoah Valley town of Lexington, it was only the second governmental military academy in the United States, after the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York (founded in 1802), and represented increased educational opportunity for non-elite southern men. Future Confederate generals Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and John McCausland were VMI instructors during John Brown's raid on the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry in 1859, and they led cadets to his execution in Charles Town, where they helped to provide security. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), approximately 1,800 VMI graduates served (including 19 in the U.S. Army), with about 250 of them killed in action. Cadets famously were called to fight in the Battle of New Market, contributing to the Confederate victory on May 15, 1864. In June, Union general David Hunter ordered the school burned, and the cadets relocated to Richmond, where they helped to defend the Confederate capital.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:25:22 EST]]>
/Dew_Thomas_R_1802-1846 Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:41:45 EST <![CDATA[Dew, Thomas R. (1802–1846)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dew_Thomas_R_1802-1846 Thomas R. Dew spent a decade as president of the College of William and Mary (1836–1846), but is also known for his works supporting slavery and opposing protective tariffs. While a professor of political law at William and Mary, Dew achieved national prominence when he attacked the tariff of 1828. He backed free trade, believing export taxes hindered southern planters at the expense of northern manufacturers. He favored state banks over a national bank, fearing that the latter would provide the government with too much power over the economy. His commentary on Virginia's debate to end slavery in 1831–1832 showed him an ardent supporter of the institution, even opposing gradual emancipation because it would deprive the state of its wealth. Dew also argued that denying suffrage to women was appropriate because devotion to family hindered their capacity to understand politics. William and Mary's board named him its president in 1836. During his administration the college became an important wellspring of southern thought as sectional tension heightened. Dew died of bronchitis in 1846.
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:41:45 EST]]>
/Bryan_John_Stewart_1871-1944 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:26:26 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, John Stewart (1871–1944)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_John_Stewart_1871-1944 John Stewart Bryan was a Richmond newspaper publisher and president of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. The son of a wealthy and influential newspaper publisher, Bryan went into the family business after briefly practicing law. In 1900, he began work as a reporter at the Richmond Dispatch, owned by his father, Joseph Bryan, and within a year was vice president of the holding company. Upon his father's death in 1908, he became president of the company and owner and publisher of the Richmond News Leader. There he hired as editor Douglas Southall Freeman, who went on to win two Pulitzer Prizes for his historical writing. In 1934, Bryan became president of the College of William and Mary and worked to broaden the school's curriculum and strengthening its reputation as a liberal arts college. Problems at one of the school's affiliates, in Norfolk, however, caused a suspension of the college's national accreditation in 1941. Citing poor health and the need for new leadership, Bryan resigned in 1942 and died in Richmond two years later.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:26:26 EST]]>
/Dawson_Thomas_1715-1760 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:16:21 EST <![CDATA[Dawson, Thomas (1715–1760)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dawson_Thomas_1715-1760 Thomas Dawson was an Anglican priest, rector of Bruton Parish (1743–1759), commissary of the bishop of London (1752–1759), member of the governor's Council (1753–1760), and president of the College of William and Mary (1755–1760). Born in England, Dawson traveled to Virginia in 1735 and attended the College of William and Mary, where he studied and worked. He was ordained as a deacon and priest of the Church of England by the bishop of Carlisle in 1740 and served as rector of the Bruton Parish Church. He was named commissary of the bishop of London on September 21, 1752, and was appointed to the governor's Council in 1753. In 1755 Dawson became president of the College of William and Mary. His popularity among Virginia clergymen declined in the 1750s when he neglected to formally protest the Two Penny Acts; his tenure as president of William and Mary was tainted by a power struggle between the faculty, composed of clergymen, and the board of visitors, composed of laypeople. However, Dawson remained an advocate for the education of children and African Americans throughout his life. At the end of his life, Dawson became dependent on alcohol, and in 1760 the board of visitors accused him of habitual drunkenness, infrequent attendance at college prayers, and gambling. Dawson died shortly thereafter, on November 29, 1760.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:16:21 EST]]>
/Armstrong_Samuel_Chapman_1839-1893 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:10:13 EST <![CDATA[Armstrong, Samuel Chapman (1839–1893)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armstrong_Samuel_Chapman_1839-1893 Samuel Chapman Armstrong was the founder of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). Armstrong's father served as the kingdom of Hawaii's minister of education and emphasized student labor as a key part of schooling. The younger Armstrong enlisted in the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and commanded regiments in the United States Colored Troops. After the war he worked with the Freedmen's Bureau and began planning a school to train black teachers. Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute opened in 1868 and emphasized labor alongside academics. The institution produced African American educators across the South, most notably Booker T. Washington. In 1878 Hampton's mission expanded with the admission of Native American students. The growth intensified Armstrong dependence on benefactors and in turn left it further exposed to the rising racism among American whites. In his later years academics at Hampton were publicly de-emphasized in favor of its trade-school programs. Armstrong died of a stroke in 1893.
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:10:13 EST]]>
/Conrad_Thomas_Nelson_1837-1905 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 13:04:49 EST <![CDATA[Conrad, Thomas Nelson (1837–1905)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conrad_Thomas_Nelson_1837-1905 Thomas Nelson Conrad was a Confederate spy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and president of Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College (later Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). Conrad was the head of the Georgetown Institute, a boys' school in the District of Columbia at the start of the Civil War. An open Confederate sympathizer, he worked as a spy throughout the war, even while serving as chaplain of the 3rd Virginia Cavalry. After the war, Conrad became principal of a boys' school in Blacksburg, and when it was absorbed into the new agricultural college, attempted to become president. He finally succeeded when the Readjusters took power in 1882, and under his leadership, the school introduced literary and scientific studies, increased spending on the library, and reorganized its military program to resemble the curriculum of the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington. After the Readjusters lost power, Conrad was dismissed as president in 1886. He taught in Maryland, worked for the U.S. Census Bureau in Washington, D.C., and published two memoirs of his war experiences before retiring to a farm in Prince William County. He died in 1905 in Washington.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 13:04:49 EST]]>
/Dyer_Carrie_Victoria_1839-1921 Sat, 19 Oct 2013 12:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Dyer, Carrie Victoria (1839–1921)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dyer_Carrie_Victoria_1839-1921 Carrie Victoria Dyer was a key founder of Hartshorn Memorial College, an African American Baptist women's college in Richmond that later merged with Virginia Union University. Dyer, who spent her early years in Michigan and Vermont, initially taught black students in Providence, Rhode Island, and Nashville. She and Hartshorn co-founder Lyman Beecher Tefft believed female students were better served by single-sex education, which led to the establishment of the new institution. The college opened in 1883 with Dyer as principal and second in command to Tefft, who served as its president. Dyer also acted as an instructor and spent twenty-nine years as the treasurer of the Rachel Hartshorn Education and Missionary Society. She took over Hartshorn's day-to-day operations for the 1905–1906 term while Tefft was ill. Dyer became dean in 1912 and served for two academic years before she gave up the position to teach one final session. In 1926 money bequeathed by Dyer's estate to the Woman's National Baptist Convention Auxiliary of the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., was used to establish the Carrie V. Dyer Memorial Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia.
Sat, 19 Oct 2013 12:18:15 EST]]>
/Dorm_Life_an_excerpt_fromHistory_of_the_University_of_Virginia_1819-1919by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1920-1922 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 09:56:27 EST <![CDATA[Dorm Life; an excerpt fromHistory of the University of Virginia, 1819–1919by Philip Alexander Bruce (1920–1922)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dorm_Life_an_excerpt_fromHistory_of_the_University_of_Virginia_1819-1919by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1920-1922 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 09:56:27 EST]]>