Encyclopedia Virginia: Antebellum Period (1820–1860) http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /The_Speech_of_Charles_Jas_Faulkner_Of_Berkeley_in_the_House_of_Delegates_of_Virginia_on_the_Policy_of_the_State_with_Respect_to_Her_Slave_Population_January_14_1832 Mon, 26 Oct 2020 10:31:46 EST The Speech of Charles Jas. Faulkner, (Of Berkeley) in the House of Delegates of Virginia, on the Policy of the State with Respect to Her Slave Population. (January 14, 1832) http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Speech_of_Charles_Jas_Faulkner_Of_Berkeley_in_the_House_of_Delegates_of_Virginia_on_the_Policy_of_the_State_with_Respect_to_Her_Slave_Population_January_14_1832 Mon, 26 Oct 2020 10:31:46 EST]]> /_Interview_of_Mrs_Fannie_Berry_1937 Wed, 12 Aug 2020 12:57:51 EST <![CDATA["Interview of Mrs. Fannie Berry" (February 26, 1937)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Interview_of_Mrs_Fannie_Berry_1937 Wed, 12 Aug 2020 12:57:51 EST]]> /Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 14:29:15 EST <![CDATA[Custis, George Washington Parke (1781–1857)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 George Washington Parke Custis was a writer and orator who worked to preserve the legacy of his stepgrandfather, George Washington. Born in Maryland, Custis moved to Mount Vernon after the death of his father in 1781. He was expelled from college, served in the army, and lost election to the House of Delegates before moving to an inherited estate he called Arlington. In addition, Custis owned two other large plantations and property in four other counties. He promoted agricultural reform and commercial independence and disapproved of slavery on economic grounds, supporting gradual emancipation and colonization. During the War of 1812, Custis manned a battery, helped Dolley Madison save Washington's portrait at the White House, and delivered well-received orations on a variety of topics. In the years after the war, he began writing essays, often about Washington's family and career. He later turned to the penning of historical plays and operettas. Pocahontas; or, The Settlers of Virginia, from 1830, was dedicated to John Marshall and remains his most durable work. The patriotism of his plays fed into his work to preserve the legacy of his stepgrandfather. Custis curated a collection of Washington relics made available for public view and sometimes distributed as gifts. He arranged for portraits of Washington and painted his own scenes of life during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Custis died at Arlington in 1857.
Tue, 21 Jul 2020 14:29:15 EST]]>
/Register_of_Debates_20th_Cong_1st_sess_1789-1797_1828 Fri, 10 Jul 2020 13:42:32 EST <![CDATA[Register of Debates, 20th Cong., 1st sess., 1789–1797 (1828)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Register_of_Debates_20th_Cong_1st_sess_1789-1797_1828 Fri, 10 Jul 2020 13:42:32 EST]]> /Tucker_An_Essay_on_the_Moral_and_Political_Effect_of_the_Relation_between_the_Caucasian_Master_and_the_African_Slave_by_Beverley_1844 Thu, 02 Jul 2020 09:12:05 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, "An Essay on the Moral and Political Effect of the Relation between the Caucasian Master and the African Slave" by Beverley (1844)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_An_Essay_on_the_Moral_and_Political_Effect_of_the_Relation_between_the_Caucasian_Master_and_the_African_Slave_by_Beverley_1844 Thu, 02 Jul 2020 09:12:05 EST]]> /Tucker_A_Note_to_Blackstone_s_Commentaries_by_Beverley_January_1835 Thu, 02 Jul 2020 09:11:08 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, "A Note to Blackstone's Commentaries" by Beverley (January 1835)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_A_Note_to_Blackstone_s_Commentaries_by_Beverley_January_1835 Thu, 02 Jul 2020 09:11:08 EST]]> /Charlotte_Resolves_February_4_1833 Thu, 02 Jul 2020 09:05:59 EST <![CDATA[Charlotte Resolves (February 4, 1833)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Charlotte_Resolves_February_4_1833 Thu, 02 Jul 2020 09:05:59 EST]]> /The_Knickerbocker_March_1835 Wed, 17 Jun 2020 15:02:17 EST <![CDATA[The Knickerbocker (March 1835)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Knickerbocker_March_1835 Wed, 17 Jun 2020 15:02:17 EST]]> /Fitzhugh_William_Henry_1792-1830 Mon, 08 Jun 2020 12:26:31 EST <![CDATA[Fitzhugh, William Henry (1792–1830)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fitzhugh_William_Henry_1792-1830 Mon, 08 Jun 2020 12:26:31 EST]]> /Transatlantic_Slave_Trade_The Fri, 05 Jun 2020 11:12:40 EST <![CDATA[Transatlantic Slave Trade, The]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Transatlantic_Slave_Trade_The The transatlantic slave trade involved the purchase by Europeans of enslaved men, women, and children from Africa and their transportation to the Americas, where they were sold for profit. Between 1517 and 1867, about 12.5 million Africans began the Middle Passage across the Atlantic, enduring cruel treatment, disease, and paralyzing fear. Of those, fewer than 11 million survived, with about 40 percent of them going to work on sugarcane plantations in Brazil. Most others labored in the Caribbean, while less than 5 percent ended up in British North America and the United States. The trade originated in the fifteenth century, when Portuguesemariners began patrolling West Africa looking for gold. They ended up with slaves, whom they found useful for building up sugar production on offshore African islands. By the 1580s, the Spaniards were employing the Portuguese to bring larger numbers of enslaved Africans to the Caribbean, where they worked in numerous capacities, most of them urban. The Portuguese transferred their sugar industry to Brazil, gradually replacing enslaved Indians with slaves from Africa. Within a few decades other European powers were converting the Caribbean islands to Brazilian-style sugar plantations, which were in even greater need of enslaved labor. Meanwhile, European traders exploited political instability in Africa to generate additional captives. Most slaves reaching the Chesapeake Bay region before the 1670s were trans-shipped through the English West Indies. The Royal African Company then brought a few Africans directly to Virginia, with their numbers rising more steeply after 1698, when the company lost its monopoly. The abolitionist movement, which began in Great Britain, helped end the British trade to the United States, and the United States also outlawed slaving by its citizens. Virginia planters supported these bans, which occurred in 1807–1808, in order to position themselves as suppliers in a new, domestic trade.
Fri, 05 Jun 2020 11:12:40 EST]]>
/Lynching_in_Virginia Thu, 04 Jun 2020 19:40:06 EST <![CDATA[Lynching in Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lynching_in_Virginia Lynching involves the extralegal punishment of perceived wrongdoing by a mob. Lynching became pervasive in the American South late in the nineteenth century and, at its height, from 1880 to 1930, killed at least eighty-six men in Virginia, all but fifteen of them African Americans. Many historians believe the term can be traced to Charles Lynch, a Bedford County militia colonel during the American Revolution (1775–1783) who punished captured Loyalists outside the law. Although a regular feature of the Revolution, mob violence spiked during the 1830s in response to immigration and tensions over slavery. In the South, meanwhile, slavery had long encouraged violence against African Americans, implicating even non-slaveholding whites who were often called upon to search for escaped slaves. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), these two traditions—mob violence and violence against African Americans—joined to create an epidemic of lynchings that killed probably as many as 4,000 people from 1880 until the mid-twentieth century; the large majority of those victims were African Americans living in the South. White Virginians, who lynched the fewest number of people of any southern state, justified the practice by demonizing African Americans and arguing that the courts provided insufficient protection against their supposed criminal tendencies. Blacks and whites understood lynching as a means of enforcing white supremacy. Vocal black critics, such as the editor John Mitchell Jr., encouraged armed defense but were ignored by white lawmakers. In the 1920s, after a rash of mob violence, Virginia passed the South's first antilynching law, although no white person was ever convicted under the legislation.
Thu, 04 Jun 2020 19:40:06 EST]]>
/Brown_John_1800-1859 Fri, 10 Apr 2020 17:23:32 EST <![CDATA[Brown, John (1800–1859)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_John_1800-1859 John Brown was a fervent abolitionist who was accused of massacring pro-slavery settlers in Kansas in 1856 and who, in 1859, led an unsuccessful raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia (in what is now West Virginia), in an attempt to start a slave insurrection. On October 16, 1859, Brown and his men occupied the federal arsenal in the northern Shenandoah Valley and were quickly surrounded by the combined forces of local militias and a detachment of United States marines led by Robert E. Lee and J. E. B. Stuart. After a thirty-six-hour shoot-out, Brown and his surviving men surrendered. At the insistence of Virginia governor Henry Wise, Brown was tried in state, not federal, court. At the end of a gripping trial held in Charles Town, he was found guilty of conspiracy, of inciting servile insurrection, and of treason against the state. He was hanged on December 2, 1859. Brown's raid (and the fact that five of his "soldiers" were African Americans) touched off a frenzy among Southern slave-owners and, in the estimation of many historians, set the nation on an irreversible course toward the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Fri, 10 Apr 2020 17:23:32 EST]]>
/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Mon, 23 Mar 2020 12:35:13 EST <![CDATA[Foster, Kitty (ca. 1790–1863)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Kitty Foster was a free African American woman who owned property just south of the University of Virginia, the site of which has been memorialized by the school. Born enslaved in Albemarle County, Foster was free by 1820 and renting land in an African American community near the university known as Canada. She purchased just more than two acres from a white merchant in 1833 and lived there until her death, washing clothes for students and faculty. In 1837, a university report accused her of holding firearms for students who were prohibited from carrying them on the university's grounds. Foster died in 1863 and was buried in a cemetery on her property. Archaeologists discovered the cemetery in 1993, and in 2011 the University of Virginia dedicated a memorial on the site.
Mon, 23 Mar 2020 12:35:13 EST]]>
/Faulkner_Charles_J_1806-1884 Tue, 03 Mar 2020 16:10:44 EST <![CDATA[Faulkner, Charles J. (1806–1884)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Faulkner_Charles_J_1806-1884 Charles J. Faulkner was a member of the House of Delegates (1829–1834, 1848, 1849), the Senate of Virginia (1838–1842), the Convention of 1850–1851, and the U.S. House of Representatives, representing western Virginia(1851–1859) and, after its creation as a state, West Virginia (1875–1877). A lawyer by trade, he generally favored commercial development, especially railroads; social progress; and restrained, gradual change. During the Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831–1832, he described slavery as an inherited evil institution and recommended a gradual emancipation plan that he hoped would not infringe on the property rights of enslavers like himself. He was a member of the Whig Party until the mid-1850s, when the party's fortune began to decline; he then switched his political affiliation to the Democratic Party. Faulkner was serving as U.S. minister to France during the secession crisis and did not fight in the American Civil War (1861–1865), although he did write battle reports for Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. After the creation of West Virginia, he dedicated himself to seeing the new state prosper, becoming president of the Martinsburg and Potomac Railroad Company and overseeing the revision of the West Virginia constitution in 1871–1872. He died in Martinsburg, West Virginia, in 1884.
Tue, 03 Mar 2020 16:10:44 EST]]>
/Barbour_Lucy_Johnson_1775-1860 Tue, 03 Mar 2020 16:08:46 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, Lucy Johnson (1775–1860)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_Lucy_Johnson_1775-1860 Tue, 03 Mar 2020 16:08:46 EST]]> /Chilton_Samuel_1805-1867 Tue, 03 Mar 2020 16:06:07 EST <![CDATA[Chilton, Samuel (1805–1867)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chilton_Samuel_1805-1867 Samuel Chilton was a lawyer, a member of the House of Representatives (1843–1845), and a member of the Convention of 1850–1851, the purpose of which was the revision of the Virginia constitution. He is best known for sitting on a committee appointed during the convention to report on the apportionment of the General Assembly. Chilton supported calculating legislative representation on the basis of population and property holding, but proposed a key compromise with western delegates who held opposing views. His plan for apportionment passed, and on July 31, 1851, Chilton voted with the majority in favor of the final version of the state constitution. Chilton moved to Washington, D.C., by 1853, when he joined the American (Know Nothing) Party. In 1859 he and Hiram Griswold represented John Brown for the final two days of the treason trial that followed Brown's 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry. Though Chilton tried to appeal the guilty verdict, he was unsuccessful, and ultimately was forced to testify before a Senate committee about the circumstances surrounding his hiring and subsequent payment. After the trial, Chilton reportedly was offered and refused a position on Abraham Lincoln's administration. He died in Warrenton on January 7, 1867.
Tue, 03 Mar 2020 16:06:07 EST]]>
/Daniel_Raleigh_Travers_1805-1877 Tue, 03 Mar 2020 16:02:54 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Raleigh T. (1805–1877)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Raleigh_Travers_1805-1877 Raleigh T. Daniel helped establish the Conservative Party in 1867. Daniel spent his antebellum political career as a Whig, winning a House of Delegates seat from Richmond in 1841. The Whig majority in the General Assembly selected Daniel to the first of two terms on the Council of State, a body that advised the governor, in 1845. He supported Constitutional Union candidate John Bell in the 1860 presidential election. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) he sought to promote white supremacy and marshal opposition to Republicans and radicals, especially from newly franchised African Americans. Daniel helped found the Conservative Party in 1867 and sat as its first chair until 1873. He returned to the House of Delegates in 1871 and was elected the state's attorney general two years later. During his four-year term as the Virginia government's top lawyer, he resisted federal efforts to protect African American voting rights.
Tue, 03 Mar 2020 16:02:54 EST]]>
/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Fri, 07 Feb 2020 16:21:30 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 St. George Tucker was a lawyer, teacher, poet, essayist, inventor, and judge. One of the most influential jurists and legal scholars in the early years of the United States, he sat on three courts in Virginia: the General Court (1789–1804), the Court of Appeals (1804–1811), and the U.S. District Court for the District of Virginia (and later the Eastern District of Virginia) (1813–1825). He also served as rector (1789–1790) and professor of law (1790–1804) at the College of William and Mary. His five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in 1803, was the first major treatise on American law. Born in Bermuda, Tucker studied law as an apprentice to George Wythe in Williamsburg, gaining admission to the bar in 1774. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he smuggled needed supplies into Virginia and fought under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781) and under George Washington at the siege of Yorktown (1781). After the war he practiced in the county courts before being elevated to a judgeship. At William and Mary, he advocated the study of law as an academic discipline, and in 1796 he published A Dissertation on Slavery, his plan to gradually abolish slavery in Virginia. The General Assembly ignored it. Tucker married twice and had five surviving children, including the jurist and congressman Henry St. George Tucker and the writer and states' rights advocate Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. He died in Nelson County in 1827.
Fri, 07 Feb 2020 16:21:30 EST]]>
/Barron_Samuel_1809-1888 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 16:57:02 EST <![CDATA[Barron, Samuel (1809–1888)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barron_Samuel_1809-1888 Samuel Barron was a United States and Confederate States naval officer. The son and nephew of United States Navy captains, he was appointed a midshipman at two years old, reported for active duty at six, and sailed aboard the flagship of the Mediterranean fleet before he was eleven. During the Mexican War (1846–1848), Barron commanded the USS Perry on the Pacific coast, and during the 1850s, he served in Washington, D.C., where his courtly manners earned him the nickname, "the Navy diplomat." Like Robert E. Lee, he opposed secession but joined the Confederacy anyway, and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served first on the North Carolina coast and was captured there in 1861 and exchanged in July 1862. In March 1863, he assumed command of the James River Squadron, but spent most of his time in Richmond. At the end of the year, he transferred to Europe, but by this time Britain and France had settled on neutrality and his efforts to build a Confederate fleet there were stymied. Barron did not return to Virginia in time to play much role in the end of the war and eventually retired to a farm in Essex County, where he died in 1888.
Thu, 09 Jan 2020 16:57:02 EST]]>
/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 Wed, 20 Nov 2019 17:23:06 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony, The Trial of (1854)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 The trial of Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave from Virginia, occurred in Boston, Massachusetts, during the spring of 1854. Hired out in Richmond, Burns had saved money and stowed away on a ship to Boston, where he worked in a clothing store. A letter home to his brother unintentionally revealed his location, and when it was intercepted, Burns's owner, Charles F. Suttle, traveled north and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Approved as part of the Compromise of 1850, the law was designed to strengthen federal protections for southerners attempting recover slaves who had fled to free states. Members of the Boston Vigilance Committee, a group of antislavery activists who were committed to resisting the law, made an attempt to free Burns from custody. The rescue effort was unsuccessful, and a guard was killed in the process. In the trial, Burns's lawyers argued that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional and that Burns was not actually the man whom Suttle claimed to own. On June 1, 1854, Judge Edward Greely Loring ruled against Burns, who was afterward transported to Norfolk, Virginia, on a U.S. Revenue Cutter. Antislavery activists later purchased his freedom, and he became a minister, dying in Canada in 1862. None of those responsible for the guard's death was convicted, and many southerners believed that, in spite of the Fugitive Slave Act's successful enforcement, the Burns affair proved that northerners could not be trusted to fulfill their constitutional obligations.
Wed, 20 Nov 2019 17:23:06 EST]]>
/Leader_The_Partisan_1836 Wed, 28 Aug 2019 16:32:43 EST <![CDATA[Partisan Leader, The (1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Leader_The_Partisan_1836 The Partisan Leader; a Tale of the Future (1836), published in two volumes, is the second and best-known of the three novels by Beverley Tucker, a law professor and an outspoken advocate of states' rights, secession, and slavery. A fierce opponent of President Andrew Jackson and his vice president, Martin Van Buren, Tucker set his book in the future, in which Van Buren has just won a fourth term as president and the states in the Deep South have seceded. Around this scenario Tucker weaves an adventure and romance involving the Trevor family and two Virginia-born army officers, one of whom eventually finds himself at the head of a guerrilla force fighting federal troops in southwestern Virginia. Published under the pseudonym Edward William Sidney, The Partisan Leader was distributed in an attempt to affect the outcome of the 1836 presidential election, but Van Buren won it easily. Tucker's work found few readers, and critics split along political lines, with many disconcerted by the author's prediction of the republic's end. Modern commenters have noted the novel's prescience in its outline of secession and civil war. In 1861, at the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865), The Partisan Leader was republished in New York City, this time under Tucker's name and as evidence of a secessionist plot going back decades. A Confederate edition was published in Richmond the next year.
Wed, 28 Aug 2019 16:32:43 EST]]>
/George_Balcombe_1836 Wed, 28 Aug 2019 14:58:24 EST <![CDATA[George Balcombe (1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Balcombe_1836 George Balcombe (1836), published in two volumes, is one of three novels by Beverley Tucker, a lawyer, judge, and essayist whose most famous work, The Partisan Leader, was published the same year. Born and raised in Virginia, Tucker lived in Missouri before returning home to be close to his ailing half-brother, John Randolph of Roanoke. This novel, written in the years after Randolph's death in 1833, introduces a conflict over an inheritance that roughly parallels Tucker's own experiences with Randolph's will. In George Balcombe, William Napier sets off from Virginia for Missouri in search of a mysterious man named Montague who appears to have usurped Napier's inheritance from his grandfather. Along the way he meets the titular character, drawn by Tucker as a classic and virtuous Virginia gentleman, who helps him retrieve his money and eventually win the heart of his cousin. Tucker develops archetypal heroes and villains as social and political models for his readers, while giving special attention to articulating, through Balcombe, theories regarding the natural subordination of women and black people. Edgar Allan Poe praised George Balcombe, "upon the whole, as the best American novel." Modern critics, however, have generally dismissed its quality and importance.
Wed, 28 Aug 2019 14:58:24 EST]]>
/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia Wed, 21 Aug 2019 16:37:13 EST <![CDATA[Underground Railroad in Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia The Underground Railroad in Virginia was a series of secret networks, often working independently of one another and manned by both free blacks and whites, designed to help enslaved African Americans escape to the North and to Canada. Such networks were less necessary in the earliest days of slavery in Virginia because runaways tended to stay relatively close to home. Only after the American Revolution (1775–1783), when northern states outlawed slavery and a new domestic trade began to send thousands of enslaved men, women, and children into the Deep South, did fugitive slaves cross state lines in great numbers. Federal fugitive slave laws in 1793 and 1850 made such escapes more difficult but they also led to the development of the Underground Railroad, a term that had gained popular currency by the 1840s. Quakers in Philadelphia, New York, and North Carolina, burning with antislavery zeal, aided kidnapped African Americans and fugitive slaves and, in concert with free blacks and even some slaves, began to develop networks by which to smuggle them to freedom. With the largest slave population, Virginia also had among the greatest number of fugitives. They left mostly by sea, with some remaining in the North and others joining black communities in Canada. While it remains up for debate exactly how many escaped, slaveholders regularly complained of financial losses. Only the abolition of slavery ended the Underground Railroad's work.
Wed, 21 Aug 2019 16:37:13 EST]]>
/Claiborne_Nathaniel_Herbert_1775-1859 Wed, 14 Aug 2019 17:02:58 EST <![CDATA[Claiborne, Nathaniel Herbert (1775–1859)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Claiborne_Nathaniel_Herbert_1775-1859 Wed, 14 Aug 2019 17:02:58 EST]]> /_Literary_Notices_Book_Table_The_New_York_Mirror_March_14_1835 Mon, 12 Aug 2019 12:06:24 EST <![CDATA["Literary Notices. Book Table." The New York Mirror (March 14, 1835)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Literary_Notices_Book_Table_The_New_York_Mirror_March_14_1835 Mon, 12 Aug 2019 12:06:24 EST]]> /American_Quarterly_Review_December_1834 Thu, 08 Aug 2019 10:35:17 EST <![CDATA[American Quarterly Review (December 1834)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/American_Quarterly_Review_December_1834 Thu, 08 Aug 2019 10:35:17 EST]]> /The_Knickerbocker_4_August_1834_155-156 Thu, 08 Aug 2019 10:15:54 EST <![CDATA[The Knickerbocker 4 (August 1834) 155–156.]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Knickerbocker_4_August_1834_155-156 Thu, 08 Aug 2019 10:15:54 EST]]> /American_Monthly_Review_September_1832 Thu, 08 Aug 2019 09:54:53 EST <![CDATA[American Monthly Review (September 1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/American_Monthly_Review_September_1832 Thu, 08 Aug 2019 09:54:53 EST]]> /_Critical_Notices_The_Knights_of_the_Horse_Shoe_a_Tale_of_the_Old_Dominion_Wetumpka_Ala_1845_April_1846 Thu, 08 Aug 2019 09:26:51 EST <![CDATA["Critical Notices. The Knights of the Horse Shoe, a Tale of the Old Dominion. Wetumpka, Ala. 1845." (April 1846)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Critical_Notices_The_Knights_of_the_Horse_Shoe_a_Tale_of_the_Old_Dominion_Wetumpka_Ala_1845_April_1846 Thu, 08 Aug 2019 09:26:51 EST]]> /Slavery_at_the_College_of_William_and_Mary Fri, 26 Jul 2019 09:48:25 EST <![CDATA[Slavery at the College of William and Mary]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_at_the_College_of_William_and_Mary The College of William and Mary utilized the labor of enslaved African Americans from the earliest days of its construction, in 1695, until the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865), when the school suspended classes. Enslaved laborers built the college's main building, the Brafferton, and the President's House, and later performed the duties of taking care of the school, its professors, and its students. Besides those it directly enslaved, the college depended on the forced labor of those being hired out from other owners. Although documentation of their lives is scarce, it's clear they kept student rooms and classrooms clean, served meals, shined shoes, rang the bell, ran errands, cut wood,performed maintenance and repairs, and gardened. Enslaved people were subject to often harsh discipline and abuse by faculty, staff, and students, who often viewed them as lazy, incompetent, and inferior to whites. During the American Revolution (1775–1783), many slaves were sold when the college's finances became precarious. From about 1760 into the early Federalist period, intellectual skepticism about slavery was strong, but by the middle of the nineteenth century, a proslavery ideology had taken hold and was promulgated. In 2009, the College of William and Mary established the Lemon Project, charged with documenting the institution's complicity in slavery and its aftereffects. The college officially apologized for that complicity in 2018.
Fri, 26 Jul 2019 09:48:25 EST]]>
/Bouldin_Thomas_Tyler_d_1834 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:31:18 EST <![CDATA[Bouldin, Thomas Tyler (d. 1834)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bouldin_Thomas_Tyler_d_1834 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:31:18 EST]]> /Bouldin_James_Wood_ca_1792-1854 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:28:49 EST <![CDATA[Bouldin, James Wood (ca. 1792–1854)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bouldin_James_Wood_ca_1792-1854 James Wood Bouldin was a member of the House of Delegates (1825–1826) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1834–1839). Born in Charlotte County, he practiced law there and served one term in the General Assembly. Then, in 1834, his brother died unexpectedly while serving in Congress and Bouldin was pressed into service as his replacement. A Democrat and ally of the Andrew Jackson administration, he won election against Beverley Tucker, finishing his brother's term and serving two more after that. In Washington he sat on the Committee on the District of Columbia (1835–1839) and vigorously opposed the abolition of slavery in the District. He also supported the independence and eventual statehood of Texas. Bouldin died in 1854.
Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:28:49 EST]]>
/Archer_William_Segar_1789-1855 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:05:23 EST <![CDATA[Archer, William Segar (1789–1855)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archer_William_Segar_1789-1855 William Segar Archer was a member of the House of Delegates (1812–1814, 1818–1819), the U.S. House of Representatives (1820–1835), and the U.S. Senate (1841–1847). Born in Amelia County and educated at the College of William and Mary, Archer began his political career early and represented his constituents as a conservative, states' rights Republican. He supported President Andrew Jackson but broke with him over his handling of the Nullification Crisis of 1832–1833. By the 1840s he had joined the Whig Party, and as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee he opposed the annexation of Texas but favored the expansion of slavery into the Southwest. He lost elections to be a delegate at the constitutional conventions of 1829–1830 and 1850 and generally opposed their attempts at democratic reform. He died in 1855.
Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:05:23 EST]]>
/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Mon, 24 Jun 2019 08:18:07 EST <![CDATA[Slave Literacy and Education in Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia A relatively small number of enslaved African Americans in Virginia learned to read and write, either on their own or at the behest of their masters. As many as 5 percent of slaves may have been literate by the start of the American Revolution (1775–1783), their educations often tied to religious instruction. Many slaveholders viewed Christian teaching as their duty, and converts to the Church of England were required to be literate enough to read a catechism. The Anglican bishop Edmund Gibson and the minister Dr. Thomas Bray both promoted slave education in America with the Associates of Dr. Bray founding a number of schools, including in Williamsburg and Fredericksburg. Virginia law never explicitly prohibited the education of slaves, but in the years after Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), the General Assembly made it more difficult. Elite whites worried that slaves who could read and write could travel through white society more easily and be exposed to ideas of freedom, making them more inclined to rebel. The gathering of slaves for the purpose of education was prohibited, so individuals stole away to learn on their own, often at great personal risk. During the antebellum period, the percentage of literate slaves had doubled to 10 percent. The laws became even stricter after Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831—Turner was a literate preacher—but during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865) freedpeople quickly established their own schools. Literacy rates rose to 30 percent and then, by 1910, to as high as 70 percent.
Mon, 24 Jun 2019 08:18:07 EST]]>
/Revolt_Nat_Turner_s_1831 Tue, 18 Jun 2019 15:06:01 EST <![CDATA[Turner's Revolt, Nat (1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Revolt_Nat_Turner_s_1831 On the evening of August 21–22, 1831, an enslaved preacher and self-styled prophet named Nat Turner launched the most deadly slave revolt in the history of the United States. Over the course of a day in Southampton County, Turner and his allies killed fifty-five white men, women, and children as the rebels made their way toward Jerusalem, Virginia (now Courtland). Less than twenty-four hours after the revolt began, the rebels encountered organized resistance and were defeated in an encounter at James Parker's farm. Following this setback, Turner and other rebels scrambled to reassemble their forces. The next day, a series of defeats led to the effective end of the revolt. Whites quickly and brutally reasserted their control over Southampton County, killing roughly three dozen blacks without trials. Within a few days of the revolt, white leaders in Southampton became increasingly confident that the revolt had been suppressed and worked to limit the extralegal killing of blacks. Instead, white leaders made sure that the remaining suspected slaves were tried, which also meant that the white slave owners would receive compensation from the state for condemned slaves, a benefit that the state did not extend to slave owners who owned suspected rebels killed without trials. This effort, which reached a climax with the declaration of martial law in Southampton a week after the revolt began, meant that Southampton court system would ultimately decide what to do with suspected slave rebels. Trials began on August 31, 1831, and the majority of trials were completed within a month. By the time that the trials were finished the following spring, thirty slaves and one free black had been condemned to death. Of these, nineteen were executed in Southampton: Governor John Floyd, following the recommendations of the court in Southampton, commuted twelve sentences. Turner himself had eluded whites throughout September and into October when two slaves spotted him close to where the revolt began. Once detected, Turner was forced to move, but he was unable to elude the renewed manhunt. He was captured on October 30. While in jail awaiting trial, Turner spoke freely with whites about the revolt. Local lawyer Thomas R. Gray approached Turner with a plan to take down his confessions. The Confessions of Nat Turner was published within weeks of the Turner's execution on November 11, 1831, and remains one of the most important sources for historians working on slavery in the United States. The revolt had important ramifications outside of Southampton, as several southern communities feared that slaves in their community were part of the revolt. In Richmond, Thomas Jefferson Randolph—the grandson of Thomas Jefferson—tried but failed to convince the General Assemblyto enact a plan that would have put the state on the path to gradual emancipation. Abolitionists remembered the revolt as an important example of both slaves' hate for the system of slavery and their bravery. The cultural legacy of the revolt is still vibrant; the revolt remains the clearest example of overt resistance in the United States to the system of slavery.
Tue, 18 Jun 2019 15:06:01 EST]]>
/Tucker_Beverley_1784-1851 Mon, 17 Jun 2019 10:00:48 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, Beverley (1784–1851)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_Beverley_1784-1851 Beverley Tucker was a law professor, an advocate of slavery and states' rights, and a writer who is best known for his novel The Partisan Leader (1836), a prediction of civil war that proved remarkably prescient. Born in Chesterfield County to a prominent slaveholding family, Tucker was educated at the College of William and Mary and then read law before opening a practice in Charlotte County. From 1816 to 1833, Tucker lived in Missouri, where he established a settlement for slaveholders and, in response to sectional strife over slavery in the territories, publicly argued for states' rights and secession. In 1834, he was appointed a professor of law at William and Mary, a position previously held by his father, St. George Tucker, and that year delivered a major lecture there in defense of slavery. Over time Beverley Tucker became a leading architect of proslavery ideology and he often employed extreme rhetoric, once publicly referring to his opponents as "bloated vampyres," for instance. In 1836, he published The Partisan Leader, a fictional piece of political propaganda, timed to influence the presidential election, that in many respects anticipated the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1850, Tucker served as a delegate to the Nashville Convention, a meeting of southern states, during which he called for a new slaveholding republic that stretched from the American South to Cuba and Jamaica. Tucker died in 1851.
Mon, 17 Jun 2019 10:00:48 EST]]>
/Knights_of_the_Horse-Shoe_The_1845 Thu, 23 May 2019 15:35:33 EST <![CDATA[Knights of the Horse-Shoe, The (1845)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Knights_of_the_Horse-Shoe_The_1845 The Knights of the Horse-Shoe: A Traditionary Tale of the Cocked Hat Gentry in the Old Dominion (1845), published in two volumes, is the third and final work of William Alexander Caruthers, a physician who helped originate the romantic Virginia novel and who died of tuberculosis in 1846. First serialized in 1841 in the pages of the Magnolia: or Southern Monthly under the title The Knights of the Golden Horse-Shoe, the book is an action-adventure story and romance that focuses on the exploits of the band of adventurers who in 1716 accompanied Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood on an expedition to the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains. It is widely considered to be the best of Caruthers's novels and was the first full-length book, fiction or nonfiction, devoted to this historical event. Knights presents a Spotswood with a large and drama-filled family—the historical governor actually was a bachelor—including a son who has an illicit relationship with an Indian woman and a tutor who is not who he says he is. Plot turns include a murder, a kidnapping, a marriage, and, finally, the expedition, which redeems Spotswood's leadership. Little is known about the book's critical reception at the time of its release, but modern scholars have focused on finding connections between the characters' romantic relationships and Caruthers's views on western expansion.
Thu, 23 May 2019 15:35:33 EST]]>
/Caruthers_William_Alexander_1802-1846 Thu, 23 May 2019 15:34:15 EST <![CDATA[Caruthers, William Alexander (1802–1846)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Caruthers_William_Alexander_1802-1846 William Alexander Caruthers is regarded as the first important Virginia novelist and one of earliest practitioners of the romantic tradition in the South. Trained as a physician, he wrote three southern-based novels in the mid-1830s: The Kentuckian in New-York; or, The Adventures of Three Southerns, by a Virginian (1834), Cavaliers of Virginia; or, The Recluse of Jamestown. An Historical Romance of the Old Dominion (1834–1835), and The Knights of the Golden Horse-Shoe, a Traditionary Tale of the Cocked Hat Gentry in the Old Dominion (1845). Aspiring to become a writer of national significance, Caruthers could not move beyond identification as a sectional historian and romancer of the Old Dominion. Ignored in his home state for decades, he was eventually recognized as the originator of what became known as the Virginia novel. He contracted tuberculosis and died on August 29, 1846, at a Georgia health resort.
Thu, 23 May 2019 15:34:15 EST]]>
/Kentuckian_in_New-York_The_1834 Thu, 23 May 2019 15:33:24 EST <![CDATA[Kentuckian in New-York, The (1834)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kentuckian_in_New-York_The_1834 The Kentuckian in New-York; or, the Adventures of Three Southerns, by a Virginian (1834), published in two volumes, is the first of three novels by William Alexander Caruthers, a physician who helped originate the romantic Virginia novel and who died of tuberculosis in 1846. A genre-bending epistolary comedy, The Kentuckian follows the travels of several men who attended college together in Virginia. They all seek to explore different parts of the country in order to overcome the sectional differences then threatening to divide America. In New York, a South Carolinian falls in love, while in South Carolina, a Virginian does the same, helping to avert a slave rebellion at the same time. The novel ends with weddings meant to symbolize the eternal union of North, South, and West. Contemporary reviews tended to be favorable to the extent to which reviewers were not threatened by The Kentuckian's adherence to the tropes of sectional difference, while more nationalist editors were hostile. Modern critics have found Caruthers's work most interesting as an early example of what one termed the "intersectional novel."
Thu, 23 May 2019 15:33:24 EST]]>
/Virginia_The_Cavaliers_of_1834-1835 Thu, 23 May 2019 15:32:07 EST <![CDATA[Cavaliers of Virginia, The (1834–1835)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_The_Cavaliers_of_1834-1835 The Cavaliers of Virginia; or, The Recluse of Jamestown. An Historical Romance of the Old Dominion (1834–1835), published in two volumes, is the second of three novels by William Alexander Caruthers, a physician who helped originate the romantic Virginia novel and who died of tuberculosis in 1846. An action-adventure story and romance set in Jamestown during Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), the novel uses the backdrop of colonial Virginia to tell its story, making characters of such noted figures as Nathaniel Bacon and Sir William Berkeley but in general not following the history. Unlike the historical Bacon, the novel's character is the ward of a Virginia aristocrat who vies for the hand of that aristocrat's daughter. At the same time, an Indian "princess" covets Bacon, even during conflict with the English invaders. These romantic tribulations overlap with political discontent within the colony, which erupts in open warfare between Bacon and his men and the governor and his followers. Caruthers drew on the myth of the Virginia Cavalier—a dashing and gentlemanly hero—in his portrayal of Bacon, and the novel was well received by reviewers, better than either of the author's other two novels. Modern-day scholars have debated the book's use of history and the Cavalier archetype but otherwise have not paid it more than cursory attention.
Thu, 23 May 2019 15:32:07 EST]]>
/Coalter_John_1769-1838 Thu, 23 May 2019 14:21:37 EST <![CDATA[Coalter, John (1769–1838)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Coalter_John_1769-1838 John Coalter was a judge of the Virginia Court of Appeals (1811–1831) and a member of the Convention of 1829–1830. Born in Augusta County and educated at Liberty Hall in Lexington, he studied law under George Wythe at the College of William and Mary. He tutored the children of Wythe's protégé, St. George Tucker, and later married Tucker's daughter. Coalter served on the General Court from 1809 until 1811, hearing civil cases in the western part of the state. In 1811, he was appointed to the Court of Appeals, the state's highest court, filling a vacancy made by the resignation of Tucker. He compiled a solid but unspectacular record over twenty years, a time when Spencer Roane, with whom Tucker had clashed, led the court and other judges followed. In 1817, Coalter served on a committee that revised the state's laws. In 1829, he was elected to fill a vacancy among delegates at the Convention of 1829–1830, which revised the Virginia constitution. He opposed many of the proposed reforms, including reducing property requirements for suffrage, but he voted with the majority for the constitution. Coalter retired from the court in 1831, living his remaining years at Chatham Manor, overlooking Fredericksburg. He died in 1838.
Thu, 23 May 2019 14:21:37 EST]]>
/Atkinson_W_1796-1849 Wed, 22 May 2019 15:11:19 EST <![CDATA[Atkinson, W. (1796–1849)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atkinson_W_1796-1849 Wed, 22 May 2019 15:11:19 EST]]> /Bayly_Thomas_Monteagle_1775-1834 Wed, 22 May 2019 14:56:38 EST <![CDATA[Bayly, Thomas Monteagle (1775–1834)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bayly_Thomas_Monteagle_1775-1834 Wed, 22 May 2019 14:56:38 EST]]> /Swallow_Barn_1832 Thu, 02 May 2019 17:07:00 EST <![CDATA[Swallow Barn (1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Swallow_Barn_1832 Swallow Barn; or, a Sojourn in the Old Dominion (1832), published in two volumes, is the first book-length work of John Pendleton Kennedy, a Maryland lawyer who later served in Congress and as secretary of the Navy. Ambivalent about whether he wanted his book to be a novel, Kennedy created a difficult-to-categorize story about the manners and customs of Virginian plantation-dwellers and slaveholders. Set near Martinsburg, the story focuses on two abutting plantations—Swallow Barn and the Brakes—and the long-running legal conflict between the owners. A secondary plot involving a courtship eventually unites the families and helps lead to the final resolution of the conflict. Upon its release, Swallow Barn enjoyed popular success, although the critics, even when sensing promise in Kennedy, found it to be too derivative of the work of Washington Irving. Modern critics who have considered it—they are few—have commented on its romantic treatment of slavery and its early interest in contrasting northern and southern culture, accomplished through the lens of a New York–born narrator.
Thu, 02 May 2019 17:07:00 EST]]>
/Hodges_Johnson_d_1872 Wed, 06 Mar 2019 12:13:38 EST <![CDATA[Hodges, William Johnson (d. 1872)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hodges_Johnson_d_1872 Wed, 06 Mar 2019 12:13:38 EST]]> /Lee_Robert_E_and_Slavery Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:32:36 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. and Slavery]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_E_and_Slavery Robert E. Lee was the most successful Confederate military leader during the American Civil War (1861–1865). This also made him, by virtue of the Confederacy's defense of chattel slavery, the most successful defender of the enslavement of African Americans. Yet his own personal record on both slavery and race is mottled with contradictions and ambivalence, all which were in plain view during his long career. Born into two of Virginia's most prominent families, Lee spent his early years surrounded by enslaved African Americans, although that changed once he joined the Army. His wife, Mary Randolph Custis Lee, freed her own personal slaves, but her father, George Washington Parke Custis, still owned many people, and when he died, Robert E. Lee, as executor of his estate, was responsible for manumitting them within five years. He was widely criticized for taking the full five years. Lee and his wife supported the American Colonization Society before the war but resisted the abolitionist movement. Lee later insisted that his decision to support the Confederacy was not founded on a defense of slavery. During both the Maryland (1862) and Gettysburg (1863) campaigns, Lee's officers kidnapped free blacks and sold them into slavery. By 1865, Lee supported the enlistment of African Americans into the Confederate army, but he surrendered before a plan could be implemented. After the war, he generally opposed racial and political equality for African Americans.
Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:32:36 EST]]>
/Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870 Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:30:14 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. (1807–1870)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870 Robert E. Lee was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) who led the Army of Northern Virginia from June 1862 until its surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Descended from several of Virginia's First Families, Lee was a well-regarded officer of the United States Army before the war. His decision to fight for the Confederacy was emblematic of the wrenching choices faced by Americans as the nation divided. After an early defeat in western Virginia, he repulsed George B. McClellan's army from the Confederate capital during the Seven Days' Battles (1862) and won stunning victories at Manassas (1862), Fredericksburg (1862), and Chancellorsville (1863). The Maryland and Pennsylvania campaigns he led resulted in major contests at Antietam (1862) and Gettysburg (1863), respectively, with severe consequences for the Confederacy. Lee offered a spirited defense during the Overland Campaign (1864) against Ulysses S. Grant, but was ultimately outmaneuvered and forced into a prolonged siege at Petersburg (1864–1865). Lee's generalship was characterized by bold tactical maneuvers and inspirational leadership; however, critics have questioned his strategic judgment, his waste of lives in needless battles, and his unwillingness to fight in the Western Theater. In 1865, his beloved home at Arlington having been turned into a national cemetery, Lee became president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in Lexington. There he promoted educational innovation and presented a constructive face to the devastated Southern public. Privately Lee remained bitter and worked to obstruct societal changes brought about by the war, including the enfranchisement of African Americans. By the end of his life he had become a potent symbol of regional pride and dignity in defeat, and has remained an icon of the Lost Cause. He died on October 12, 1870.
Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:30:14 EST]]>
/Ferguson_John_E_1810-1859 Tue, 12 Feb 2019 16:43:39 EST <![CDATA[Ferguson, John E. (1810–1859)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ferguson_John_E_1810-1859 John E. Ferguson was a businessman of mixed-race ancestry. He worked as a barber in Richmond and rose to the elite of that city's free black community, serving prosperous white men and even owning enslaved people. He bought and sold real estate and by 1859 owned more than a dozen properties. In 1853, after arguing he was only one-quarter black, Ferguson received from a Richmond court a certificate that freed him of certain legal restrictions that came with being African American. Nevertheless, when he faced criminal charges three years later, he was treated as black. He was acquitted, but when his son ran afoul of the law, too, he was convicted and fined with evidence that would not have been used against a white man. Ferguson died in 1859.
Tue, 12 Feb 2019 16:43:39 EST]]>
/Will_of_George_Washington_Parke_Custis_March_26_1855 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 11:59:36 EST <![CDATA[Will of George Washington Parke Custis (March 26, 1855)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Will_of_George_Washington_Parke_Custis_March_26_1855 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 11:59:36 EST]]> /Enslaved_House_Servants Mon, 04 Feb 2019 15:56:29 EST <![CDATA[Enslaved House Servants]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Enslaved_House_Servants Enslaved house servants labored on large rural plantations and in urban homes, as well as in urban taverns and hotels, performing all the jobs involved with keeping a private or public house running. These included maintaining fires, hauling wood, sweeping hearths, carrying water, emptying chamber pots, sweeping and scrubbing floors, washing and ironing clothing, sewing, minding babies and children, helping to groom adults, cooking and serving food, and otherwise remaining on call for the commands of white slaveholders. The work was daily, constant, sometimes difficult, and often tedious, and enslaved servants often slept on pallets on the floors of bedrooms or hallways near where they labored. Beginning work as young apprentices, many house servants eventually inherited the positions of their parents or relatives. This meant learning the culinary arts or the skills required of a butler, which involved interacting with whites in a manner that was discreet but knowledgeable of the social status of visitors and the routines of the house. This proximity to whites allowed at least some house servants, especially those who labored on elite rural plantations, to receive slightly better clothing and housing. Evidence suggests that they did not receive more or better food, however. That same proximity also made enslaved women and girls especially vulnerable to the sexual predation of male slaveholders and their guests.
Mon, 04 Feb 2019 15:56:29 EST]]>
/Blackburn_Samuel_1761-1835 Thu, 17 Jan 2019 15:56:11 EST <![CDATA[Blackburn, Samuel (1761–1835)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackburn_Samuel_1761-1835 Thu, 17 Jan 2019 15:56:11 EST]]> /Davis_William_Roscoe_d_ca_1904 Wed, 16 Jan 2019 11:52:04 EST <![CDATA[Davis, William Roscoe (d. 1904)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_William_Roscoe_d_ca_1904 William Roscoe Davis was an important African American leader in Elizabeth City County (later the city of Hampton) during the American Civil War (1861­–1865), and served as doorkeeper for the Constitutional Convention of 1867­–1868. Born into slavery, Davis was noted for his intelligence and received permission to work as a boat operator. He spent a considerable amount of his money paying for a lawsuit to defend his wife's manumission, but a local judge refused to enforce the couple's legal victory. Davis was among the first slaves to find freedom at Fort Monroe. A Baptist exhorter before the conflict, he became an ordained minister by 1863. His charisma was so impressive that he became a paid orator who toured Northern states. Later in life he claimed credit for the creation of Hampton Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Hampton University), telling people that his request for a new teacher led to the arrival of the institution's founder, Samuel Chapman Armstrong. He remained a leader in the community and respected elder in his family, also serving as the Old Point Comfort lighthouse keeper and buying property in Hampton. He died in 1904.
Wed, 16 Jan 2019 11:52:04 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Anne_McCarty_Lee_to_William_B_Lewis_1837 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:16:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Anne McCarty Lee to William B. Lewis (March 11, 1837)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Anne_McCarty_Lee_to_William_B_Lewis_1837 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:16:58 EST]]> /Chairman_s_Journal_for_Session_of_1836-7_September_3 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:04:41 EST <![CDATA[Chairman's Journal for Session of 1836–7 (September 3 - November 22, 1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chairman_s_Journal_for_Session_of_1836-7_September_3 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:04:41 EST]]> /Daughter_Clotel_or_the_President_s_1853 Fri, 04 Jan 2019 17:06:53 EST <![CDATA[Clotel; or the President's Daughter (1853)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daughter_Clotel_or_the_President_s_1853 Clotel; or the President's Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States by William Wells Brown was published in 1853 in London. It is considered the first African American novel. Brown, the son of an enslaved woman and her owner's brother, escaped from slavery and was a lecturer on the abolition circuit in England when he published Clotel. He based the book on the rumor that Thomas Jefferson fathered several children with his enslaved housekeeper, Sally Hemings—a rumor that DNA evidence and the historical record have since proved true. Clotel follows Jefferson's fictional mistress, Currer, and her daughters, Clotel and Althesa, during and after their sale on the auction block in Richmond; it also included documentary material—newspaper articles, notices, bills, posters, and advertisements—that contextualized his novel for a British readership that knew little about slavery. Brown hardly knew Virginia, but for him it represented all that was evil about the slave-owning United States—as did Jefferson, arguably Virginia's most famous son. Brown hated Jefferson for writing the Declaration of Independence while also fathering slave children. Brown published three additional versions of Clotel in 1860–1861, 1864, and 1867. Each one was published with a different title, in a different format, and for a different readership. Ultimately, Brown removed Jefferson from the tale. Traditional literary critics considered Brown's overstuffed plots and extranarrative material a weakness, but modern readings see the four versions of Clotel as comprising an evolving whole. A digital scholarly edition that includes all versions of the book, published in 2006, at last made a full comparative reading possible.
Fri, 04 Jan 2019 17:06:53 EST]]>
/Andrews_C_W_1807-1875 Fri, 04 Jan 2019 16:30:09 EST <![CDATA[Andrews, C. W. (1807–1875)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andrews_C_W_1807-1875 C. W. Andrews was an Episcopal minister and reformer who was active in the American Colonization Society. Born and educated in Vermont, he moved to Virginia for his health and there fell under the influence of William Meade, an evangelical minister and his wife's uncle. Andrews was ordained in 1832 and soon after became involved in the movement to gradually emancipate enslaved men, women, and children in Virginia and send them to the colony of Liberia in western Africa. He also preached against dancing, the theater, and tobacco. In 1842 Andrews became rector of Trinity Church in Shepherdstown, in what later became West Virginia, and as the American Civil War (1861–1865) threatened he opposed secession but remained loyal to Virginia when it joined the Confederacy. Skeptical of immigration, he believed that the North had become overrun with foreigners. Andrews continued to preach after the war and authored a number of sermons, essays, and books. He died in 1875.
Fri, 04 Jan 2019 16:30:09 EST]]>
/Slave_Sales Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:09:34 EST <![CDATA[Slave Sales]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Sales Slave sales represented an intricate and economically vital activity in Virginia from late in the eighteenth century through the American Civil War (1861–1865), ending only with the abolition of slavery. Sales in Virginia exceeded those of all other Upper South states, with Richmond doing the most business of any city. The origins of the slave trade date to the end of primogeniture and entail in Virginia, which broke up large estates and their often large communities of slaves. The rise of cotton production in the Lower South and the end of the transatlantic slave trade in 1808 also created a market for Virginia slaveholders, who rushed to sell enslaved people to meet the increasing demand for labor. Throughout Virginia and the Upper South, a large network of traders purchased slaves and transported them to urban centers, where they were confined to so-called jails, usually located on the grounds of large firms. After being held in these facilities, sometimes for weeks at a time, slaves were auctioned, often to another trader. These auctions occurred in sparsely furnished rooms where enslaved people were subject to intrusive physical examinations and the biddings of potential buyers. It was not unusual for such auctions to result in the permanent separation of husbands and wives, parents and children. After the sale, enslaved people were then transported on foot in "coffles," by rail, or by boat to the Lower South. In a contradiction noted by historians, a number of wealthy Virginia slave traders also fathered children and created families with enslaved and non-white women.
Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:09:34 EST]]>
/Slave_Insurance Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:06:11 EST <![CDATA[Slave Insurance]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Insurance Slave insurance involved a contract between a policy holder and an insurance company in which the insurer promised to pay a sum of money upon the death of an enslaved person. In the three decades leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865), such policies became widespread in southern states. In Virginia, the Baltimore Life Insurance Company of Maryland and later the Virginia Life Insurance Company sold insurance to slaveholders who were worried about the potential deaths of enslaved people performing particularly valuable work, such as blacksmithing, carpentry, and household duties, or dangerous work, such as in factories and mines or on railroads and steamboats. Most policies were concentrated in urban areas, with few plantation owners seeking policies on their field hands. In a few cases people purchased policies as collateral toward the manumission, or freedom, of enslaved people. Hampered by a lack of research on slave mortality, companies tended to charge premiums on black lives at twice the value of those on white lives and regularly reviewed the policies for changes in health or occupation. Baltimore Life did not insure enslaved people beyond two-thirds of their total value and prohibited more than one policy on a single person. Almost 60 percent of the company's policies between 1854 and 1860 covered slaves, with many of those policies being sold out of a Richmond office opened in 1854. The practice suggested a sophisticated understanding of how best to exploit capitalism toward the ends of making a profit on the enslavement of African Americans.
Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:06:11 EST]]>
/Narrative_of_Bethany_Veney_a_Slave_Woman_The_1889 Wed, 12 Dec 2018 14:43:52 EST <![CDATA[Narrative of Bethany Veney, a Slave Woman, The (1889)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Narrative_of_Bethany_Veney_a_Slave_Woman_The_1889 Wed, 12 Dec 2018 14:43:52 EST]]> /_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Wed, 12 Dec 2018 14:41:53 EST <![CDATA["A Slave of George Washington!" by Benjamin Chase, The Liberator (January 1, 1847)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Wed, 12 Dec 2018 14:41:53 EST]]> /Fossett_Joseph_1780-1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 17:33:51 EST <![CDATA[Fossett, Joseph (1780–1858)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fossett_Joseph_1780-1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 17:33:51 EST]]> /Armfield_John_1797-1871 Tue, 20 Nov 2018 14:35:16 EST <![CDATA[Armfield, John (1797–1871)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armfield_John_1797-1871 John Armfield, junior partner in the firm Franklin and Armfield of Alexandria, was one of the most prominent slave traders in Virginia. Born in North Carolina, he worked as a stagecoach driver before meeting Isaac Franklin and joining him in the business of selling enslaved men, women, and children for profit. In Alexandria, Armfield operated a slave-jail complex on Duke Street, gathering enslaved people from across the Upper South for shipment south, often on coastal brigs that landed in New Orleans. Many slaves then took Mississippi River paddleboats north to Natchez, Mississippi, where Franklin kept his office. The firm sold an average of 1,200 enslaved people per year, mostly young men and women either without families or separated from them, for profits of as much as $100,000 per year. Both Franklin and Armfield became rich, leaving the business in 1836. Armfield eventually moved to Tennessee, where he established a resort community at Beersheba Springs and became a founding trustee of the University of the South, in Sewanee. The American Civil War (1861–1865) helped destroy his fortune, which shrank from $500,000 in 1850 to less than $60,000 in 1870. He died in 1871.
Tue, 20 Nov 2018 14:35:16 EST]]>
/Anatomical_Theatre Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:18:02 EST <![CDATA[Anatomical Theatre]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anatomical_Theatre The Anatomical Theatre was designed by Thomas Jefferson and erected on the grounds of the University of Virginia in 1825–1826. It was used for anatomy instruction and the storage of cadavers. Jefferson had long prioritized medical education in his plans for the university, but when Robley Dunglison, the first professor of anatomy, arrived in 1825, he found that his pavilion's teaching space was inconvenient for the dissection of cadavers. Inspired by Renaissance architecture and the work of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Jefferson designed a square, three-story building that housed a skylit, octagonal surgical theater on the top floor. The Anatomical Theatre opened for classes in 1827 and was the subject of periodic construction and renovations in subsequent decades. In 1837, a one-story brick Anatomical Laboratory was built behind it and used only for dissections. Enslaved labor helped construct and later clean the theater, with university records referencing a man known as Anatomical Lewis, who served as custodian from 1839 to 1857. In order to acquire cadavers for dissection, professors such as John Staige Davis, who taught from 1847 until his death in 1885, relied on grave robbers who stole mostly African American corpses. The building fell into disuse after the opening of the University of Virginia Hospital in 1901 and briefly served as home to the School of Rural Economics. It was razed in 1939 to improve views of the new Alderman Library. It is the only Jefferson-designed building at the university to have been torn down.
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:18:02 EST]]>
/Harris_Joseph_D_c_1833-1884 Thu, 12 Jul 2018 17:45:23 EST <![CDATA[Harris, J. D. (ca. 1833–1884)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harris_Joseph_D_c_1833-1884 J. D. Harris, a free-born physician, ran as the lieutenant gubernatorial candidate for the Republican Party's radical faction in the election of 1869. Harris entered public life late in the 1850s, advocating African American repatriation to the Caribbean. His interest in tropical diseases led him into medicine, and he became a doctor in 1864. Harris's medical work for the U.S. Army settled him in Virginia. Politically active and known for his intelligence, he received the Republicans' nomination for lieutenant governor in the first statewide election under the Constitution of 1869. His multiracial background played a role in splitting the party that year. A breakaway group known as the True Republicans received the tacit support of the Conservative Party and carried the election. Harris remained active in medicine and civil rights, living in South Carolina and Virginia, until a mental breakdown in 1876. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1884.
Thu, 12 Jul 2018 17:45:23 EST]]>
/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage Mon, 09 Jul 2018 15:33:53 EST <![CDATA[Slave Ships and the Middle Passage]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage The slave ship was the means by which nearly 12.5 million enslaved Africans were transported from Africa to the Americas between 1500 and 1866. Leaving from its home port in Europe, a typical ship made its first passage to the west coast of Africa, trading goods for a full cargo of slaves—people who had been captured in war, convicted of petty crimes, or simply kidnapped. On the second, or "middle," passage, the captain sailed his cargo across the Atlantic Ocean to one or more ports in the New World, where he sold his slaves and purchased or loaded goods such as sugar, rum, and molasses. On the final passage, he returned home. The Portuguese dominated the early slave trade, but at its height, in the eighteenth century, British and American merchants helped bring millions of Africans to the Americas, a very small percentage of whom ended up in Virginia. About 15 percent of all Africans who made the voyage died, most from the accumulation of brutal treatment and inadequate care from the time of their enslavement in the interior of Africa. Others suffocated in the tightly packed holds, while some committed suicide, refused to eat, or revolted. Crew members, meanwhile, died at even higher rates, also mostly from disease. The victims of violence meted out by their officers, sailors in turn dispensed their own brand of terror to the Africans. For Africans who survived, the Middle Passage began with the separation from family and community and ended with a lifetime of enslavement.
Mon, 09 Jul 2018 15:33:53 EST]]>
/Batte_Archibald_d_by_April_12_1830 Fri, 25 May 2018 16:56:08 EST <![CDATA[Batte, Archibald (d. by April 12, 1830)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Batte_Archibald_d_by_April_12_1830 Fri, 25 May 2018 16:56:08 EST]]> /Randolph_Martha_Jefferson_1772-1836 Wed, 09 May 2018 13:21:20 EST <![CDATA[Randolph, Martha Jefferson (1772–1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Randolph_Martha_Jefferson_1772-1836 Martha Jefferson Randolph was the daughter of Thomas Jefferson and the wife of Thomas Mann Randolph, who served as governor of Virginia from 1819 to 1822. She grew up at Monticello and spent time in Williamsburg, Richmond, and Philadelphia before accompanying her widowed father to Paris, France, where she attended the Abbaye Royale de Panthemont, a prestigious convent school. After she returned to Virginia, she married and bore twelve children, eleven of whom survived to adulthood. Although she was the daughter of a president, the wife of a governor, and arguably the most highly educated woman in Virginia, Randolph's life was in many ways representative. Widely admired for her intelligence, sociability, and conversational skills, she was an exemplar of genteel white womanhood who was said to possess a "perfect temper" and who immersed herself in the trials and joys of marriage, motherhood, and plantation life. Randolph and her children lived mainly at Monticello, although her husband owned the nearby plantation Edgehill. Occasionally during her father's presidency, and throughout his retirement, she acted as hostess. Her presence reinforced Jefferson's image as a devoted family man with a stable domestic life, though fulfilling this role in her father's life may have exacerbated her already strained marriage. Both father and husband struggled and ultimately failed to remain solvent. After their deaths in 1826 and 1828, respectively, Randolph lived with her married children. She died at Edgehill on October 10, 1836.
Wed, 09 May 2018 13:21:20 EST]]>
/Williams_Narrative_of_Isaac_1856 Fri, 04 May 2018 14:51:27 EST <![CDATA[Williams, Narrative of Isaac (1856)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Williams_Narrative_of_Isaac_1856 Fri, 04 May 2018 14:51:27 EST]]> /Steward_Excerpt_from_Twenty-two_Years_a_Slave_and_Forty_Years_a_Freeman_by_Austin_1857 Thu, 03 May 2018 13:10:14 EST <![CDATA[Steward, Excerpt from Twenty-two Years a Slave, and Forty Years a Freeman by Austin (1857)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Steward_Excerpt_from_Twenty-two_Years_a_Slave_and_Forty_Years_a_Freeman_by_Austin_1857 Thu, 03 May 2018 13:10:14 EST]]> /A_Brief_Account_of_the_Life_Experience_Travels_and_Gospel_Labours_of_George_White_An_African_Written_by_Himself_and_Revised_by_a_Friend_by_George_White_1810 Thu, 03 May 2018 12:08:05 EST <![CDATA[A Brief Account of the Life, Experience, Travels, and Gospel Labours of George White, An African; Written by Himself, and Revised by a Friend. by George White (1810)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Brief_Account_of_the_Life_Experience_Travels_and_Gospel_Labours_of_George_White_An_African_Written_by_Himself_and_Revised_by_a_Friend_by_George_White_1810 Thu, 03 May 2018 12:08:05 EST]]> /Lockhart_Narrative_of_Dan_Josiah_1856 Thu, 03 May 2018 11:58:43 EST <![CDATA[Lockhart, Narrative of Dan Josiah (1856)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lockhart_Narrative_of_Dan_Josiah_1856 Thu, 03 May 2018 11:58:43 EST]]> /Robinson_Excerpt_from_From_Log_Cabin_To_the_Pulpit_or_Fifteen_Years_in_Slavery_by_William_H_1913 Thu, 03 May 2018 11:54:46 EST <![CDATA[Robinson, Excerpt from From Log Cabin To the Pulpit, or, Fifteen Years in Slavery by William H. (1913)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robinson_Excerpt_from_From_Log_Cabin_To_the_Pulpit_or_Fifteen_Years_in_Slavery_by_William_H_1913 Thu, 03 May 2018 11:54:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_Editor_Richmond_Whig_and_Commercial_Journal_August_29_1831 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 15:01:16 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Editor, Richmond Whig and Commercial Journal (August 29, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Editor_Richmond_Whig_and_Commercial_Journal_August_29_1831 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 15:01:16 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_the_Lynchburg_Virginian_September_8_1831 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:59:44 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from the Lynchburg Virginian (September 8, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_the_Lynchburg_Virginian_September_8_1831 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:59:44 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_the_Richmond_Enquirer_January_7_1832 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:57:49 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from the Richmond Enquirer (January 7, 1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_the_Richmond_Enquirer_January_7_1832 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:57:49 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_the_Richmond_Enquirer_January_12_1832 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:54:55 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from the Richmond Enquirer (January 12, 1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_the_Richmond_Enquirer_January_12_1832 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:54:55 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_The_Life_of_the_Rev_Dandridge_F_Davis_of_the_African_M_E_Church...Also_a_Brief_Sketch_of_the_Life_of_the_Rev_David_Conyou_of_the_A_M_E_C_and_His_Ministerial_labors_by_Augustus_R_Green Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:51:31 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from The Life of the Rev. Dandridge F. Davis, of the African M. E. Church…Also, a Brief Sketch of the Life of the Rev. David Conyou, of the A. M. E. C. and His Ministerial labors by Augustus R. Green ]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_The_Life_of_the_Rev_Dandridge_F_Davis_of_the_African_M_E_Church...Also_a_Brief_Sketch_of_the_Life_of_the_Rev_David_Conyou_of_the_A_M_E_C_and_His_Ministerial_labors_by_Augustus_R_Green Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:51:31 EST]]> /Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:20:23 EST <![CDATA[Langston, John Mercer (1829–1897)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 John Mercer Langston served as Virginia's first African American member of Congress (1890–1891) and as the first president of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University). The son of a white Louisa County planter and the woman he freed, Langston grew up in Ohio, where, as an attorney and local office holder, he helped recruit African American troops during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war, his involvement with the Freedmen's Bureau as inspector of schools brought him back to Virginia. In 1870 Langston became dean of Howard University's law school and served as acting president of the university from 1873 until 1875. In 1885, the Virginia State Board of Education named Langston president of the new Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. The new school grew under his leadership, but the Democrat-packed board of visitors did not renew his contract two years later. In 1888 he sought the Republican nomination for Congress, but party leader William Mahone engineered his defeat. Langston ran an independent campaign in which a Democrat was named the winner. Langston disputed the election results, however, and eventually Congress seated him for the final months of his term. He lost reelection and returned to Washington, D.C., where he published an autobiography. He died in Washington in 1897.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:20:23 EST]]>
/Seaton_George_Lewis_ca_1822-1881 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:00:06 EST <![CDATA[Seaton, George Lewis (ca. 1822–1881)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Seaton_George_Lewis_ca_1822-1881 George Lewis Seaton represented Alexandria for one session in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). Born free, Seaton worked as a carpenter and conducted multiple property transactions. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) he worked to improve the lives of former slaves by constructing two schools for Alexandria's freedpeople and helping to establish a local branch of the Freedman's Savings Bank and Trust Company. Seaton's strong reputation probably played a role in his selection to the grand jury for the U.S. Circuit Court for the District of Virginia, likely the first interracial jury in Virginia history. In 1869 he won election to the House of Delegates and voted with the majority to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution as required by Congress before Virginia could be readmitted to the United States. He lost a bid for reelection in 1871 by fewer than 100 votes, but continued to participate in party politics throughout the decade. He spent his later years supporting public schools and community organizations for African Americans in Alexandria, but had to liquidate assets including his grocery store after the Panic of 1873. He died of paralysis in his home in 1881.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:00:06 EST]]>
/Brisby_William_H_1836-1916 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 15:58:47 EST <![CDATA[Brisby, William H. (1836–1916)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brisby_William_H_1836-1916 William H. Brisby served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871), representing New Kent County. Brisby, who had an African American and Pamunkey Indian background, was born free and acquired enough money to establish his own blacksmith shop in 1860. He served as a blacksmith for a Confederate cavalry company to avoid impressment during the American Civil War (1861–1865), but also helped slaves and Union prisoners escape. The suspicion of the latter led to two imprisonments. By 1867 Brisby had entered politics as a Republican and he won a seat in the General Assembly two years later by just nineteen votes. He spent ten years on the New Kent County's board of supervisors and was a longtime justice of the peace. Brisby was strict and sometimes violent with his family, driving his sons out of the house. Late in life he began to suffer from dementia and died in 1916 at the Central State Hospital, in Petersburg, of kidney failure.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 15:58:47 EST]]>
/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:58:18 EST <![CDATA[Toler, Burwell (ca. 1822–1880)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:58:18 EST]]> /Jones_Peter_K_ca_1834-1895 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:15:20 EST <![CDATA[Jones, Peter K. (ca. 1834–1895)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jones_Peter_K_ca_1834-1895 Peter K. Jones represented Greensville and Sussex counties in the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868 and then served four terms in the House of Delegates (1869–1877). Born free in Petersburg, he first acquired property in 1857. Soon after the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he became active in politics and began urging blacks to become self-sufficient and advocating for black suffrage and unity. He moved to Greensville County about 1867, and that same year he won a seat at the convention required by the Reconstruction Acts to write a new state constitution. A member of the convention's radical faction, Jones voted in favor of granting the vote to African American men and against segregating public schools. He represented Greensville County for four consecutive terms from 1869 to 1877. During his time in office he worked tirelessly to protect the rights of African Americans. By 1881 Jones had moved to Washington, D.C., and he continued his work in support of African American interests and of the Republican Party. He died in Washington in 1895.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:15:20 EST]]>
/Autobiography_of_James_L_Smith_1881 Wed, 11 Apr 2018 15:57:44 EST <![CDATA[Autobiography of James L. Smith (1881)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Autobiography_of_James_L_Smith_1881 Wed, 11 Apr 2018 15:57:44 EST]]> /Autobiography_of_Rev_Francis_Frederick_of_Virginia_1869 Tue, 10 Apr 2018 16:24:47 EST <![CDATA[Autobiography of Rev. Francis Frederick, of Virginia (1869)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Autobiography_of_Rev_Francis_Frederick_of_Virginia_1869 Tue, 10 Apr 2018 16:24:47 EST]]> /_The_Banditti_Richmond_Enquirer_September_20_1831 Wed, 04 Apr 2018 09:59:32 EST <![CDATA["The Banditti," Richmond Enquirer (September 20, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Banditti_Richmond_Enquirer_September_20_1831 Wed, 04 Apr 2018 09:59:32 EST]]> /Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The Tue, 03 Apr 2018 14:03:41 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831–1832, The]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The The Virginia slavery debate occurred in the House of Delegates during its 1831–1832 session and was prompted by a slave insurrection in August 1831 led by Nat Turner. In the months that followed, about forty petitions, signed by more than 2,000 Virginians, urged the General Assembly to engage the problems associated with slavery. Some petitions called for outright emancipation, others for colonization. Many focused on removing from the state free blacks, who were widely seen as a nefarious influence. The House established a select committee, and when the debate finally spilled over into the full body, in mid-January 1832, it focused on two resolutions. One, made by William O. Goode, called for the rejection of all petitions calling for emancipation. Another, made by Thomas Jefferson Randolph, asked the committee to prepare an emancipation plan to go before the state's voters. By taking up these questions, the House, in effect, considered whether to free Virginia's slaves. After vigorous debate, members declined to pass such a law, deciding instead that they "should await a more definite development of public opinion." In fact, pro-slavery, anti-abolitionist opinion hardened in Virginia in the years that followed, buttressed by arguments previewed in the House. Randolph believed that even having such an open debate should be considered a victory, while others lamented how divided the state was on the crucial question of slavery.
Tue, 03 Apr 2018 14:03:41 EST]]>
/Bruce_James_Coles_1806-1865 Wed, 28 Mar 2018 17:49:51 EST <![CDATA[Bruce, James Coles (1806–1865)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bruce_James_Coles_1806-1865 James Coles Bruce was a planter, a member of the House of Delegates (1831–1834), and a member of the Convention of 1861. Born in Halifax County, he studied law at the University of Virginia before returning home to farm. In the House of Delegates, during the slavery debate of 1831–1832, he described slavery as a necessary evil and denounced efforts to abolish it. He himself owned probably more slaves than any other legislator. After his term he commissioned the building of Berry Hill, a grand mansion modeled after the Parthenon, and participated in public conversations about how the South's agricultural economy might be stimulated. Bruce suggested crop rotation, diversification, better use of capital and credit, and the sale of surplus slaves. He also advocated for the establishment of a state system of public schools open equally to men and women. One of the wealthiest men in the country. Bruce represented Halifax County at the Convention of 1861, called to consider whether Virginia should secede from the Union. He gave speeches in favor of states' rights and against abolitionism and eventually voted to secede. Bruce died in 1865.
Wed, 28 Mar 2018 17:49:51 EST]]>
/_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 Tue, 27 Mar 2018 10:11:51 EST <![CDATA[Confessions of Nat Turner, The (1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 The Confessions of Nat Turner, the leader of the late insurrection in Southampton, Va., as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray is a pamphlet published shortly after the trial and execution of Nat Turner in November 1831. The previous August, Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet, had led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, leaving fifty-five white people in Southampton County, Virginia, dead, the slaveholding South convulsed with panic, and the myth of the contented slave in tatters. His confessions, dictated from Turner's jail cell to a Southampton lawyer, have provided historians with a crucial perspective missing from an earlier planned uprising, by Gabriel (also sometimes known as Gabriel Prosser) in 1800, as well as fodder for debate over the veracity of Turner's account. Meanwhile, the book arguably is one of two American literary classics to come from the revolt, the other being The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Pulitzer Prize–winning novel by Virginia-native William Styron, published at the height of the Black Power movement in September 1967. Each of these texts has demonstrated the power of print media to shape popular perceptions of historical fact, even as each raised critical questions of accuracy, authenticity, and community control over historical interpretations of the past.
Tue, 27 Mar 2018 10:11:51 EST]]>
/Atkinson_Archibald_1792-1872 Mon, 19 Mar 2018 17:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Atkinson, Archibald (1792–1872)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atkinson_Archibald_1792-1872 Archibald Atkinson was a member of the House of Delegates (1815–1817, 1828–1831), the Senate of Virginia (1839–1843), and the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–1849). Born in Isle of Wight County, he practiced law after seeing brief action during the War of 1812. In politics, Atkinson was an ardent proslavery Democrat who supported territorial expansion in Oregon and Texas and the right to expand slavery into the territories won during the Mexican War (1846–1848). In a valedictory speech to Congress in 1849 he defended slavery as a moral good for African Americans. He served as the mayor of Smithfield from 1852 to 1855 and then left politics to farm. He died in 1872.
Mon, 19 Mar 2018 17:39:07 EST]]>
/Meeting_Minutes_of_University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_4-5_Oct_1824_October_4_1824 Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:46:34 EST <![CDATA[Meeting Minutes of University of Virginia Board of Visitors, 4–5 Oct. 1824 (October 4, 1824)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_Minutes_of_University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_4-5_Oct_1824_October_4_1824 Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:46:34 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_Riot_of_1836 Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:35:03 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Riot of 1836]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Riot_of_1836 The University of Virginia Riot of 1836 occurred on November 12–13 of that year when members of the student drilling company, the University Volunteers, commandeered the Rotunda and marched through the university's grounds, destroying property. In some respects, the violence was the culmination of a decade of misbehavior among students who hailed from elite backgrounds, were bound by an honor culture, and were unchecked by a university founded on the belief that its charges could police themselves. The University Volunteers were allowed to drill with muskets only during specially sanctioned exercises, but in 1836 the company began ignoring the rules. When the faculty chairman, John A. G. Davis, threatened to disband the group, the Volunteers defied authority, each pledging an oath of solidarity to one another. That promise bound members of the group even when some wavered in the face of violence and expulsion. Students rioted for two nights, focusing much of their ire on Davis, who called in civilian law enforcement to restore order. After debating how to handle punishments, the faculty voted to allow members of the Volunteers to remain at the university if they made "proper atonement" for the participation in the riots. Riots continued to occur in subsequent years, and the anniversary of the 1836 disturbance was marked with mischief, revelry, and, in 1840, murder, when Davis was shot dead.
Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:35:03 EST]]>
/Cook_Fields_ca_1817-1897 Tue, 06 Mar 2018 10:25:04 EST <![CDATA[Cook, Fields (ca. 1817–1897)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cook_Fields_ca_1817-1897 Tue, 06 Mar 2018 10:25:04 EST]]> /Allen_William_1768-1831 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:58:38 EST <![CDATA[Allen, William (1768–1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_William_1768-1831 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:58:38 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Henry_Lee_December_6_1859 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:04:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Henry Lee (December 6, 1859)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Henry_Lee_December_6_1859 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:04:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_August_27_1825 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:09:48 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge (August 27, 1825)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_August_27_1825 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:09:48 EST]]> /From_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Carrington_Cabell_February_4_1826 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:05:45 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Carrington Cabell (February 4, 1826)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/From_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Carrington_Cabell_February_4_1826 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:05:45 EST]]> /Thomas_Philip_1831-1888 Tue, 06 Feb 2018 16:32:16 EST <![CDATA[Thomas, Philip (1831–1888)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Philip_1831-1888 Tue, 06 Feb 2018 16:32:16 EST]]> /Harrison_Gessner_1807-1862 Fri, 02 Feb 2018 17:17:35 EST <![CDATA[Harrison, Gessner (1807–1862)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harrison_Gessner_1807-1862 Gessner Harrison was a professor of ancient languages at the University of Virginia from 1828 to 1859, the first graduate of the university to join the faculty. Born in Harrisonburg, he hailed from a learned and political family, and, in 1825, became the fifth student to register at the new University of Virginia. Harrison's sincerity and religious conviction appeared to have impressed Thomas Jefferson, with whom he was invited to dine, and he became a professor when he was just twenty-one years old. What impressed Jefferson, however, did not always impress his students who, early in Harrison's career, attacked him on multiple occasions, once with a horsewhip. Harrison, who had earned a degree in medicine, eventually came to earn respect as a classics scholar, and he served as faculty chairman three times (1837–1839, 1840–1842, 1847–1854). In 1859, he resigned from the university to establish a school for boys. The beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865) took most of his students away and the school closed when Harrison died in 1862.
Fri, 02 Feb 2018 17:17:35 EST]]>
/Cabell_William_H_1772-1853 Fri, 02 Feb 2018 17:04:07 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, William H. (1772–1853)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_William_H_1772-1853 William H. Cabell was the governor of Virginia (1805–1808) and, for four decades, a justice of the Virginia Court of Appeals (1811–1852). A Democratic-Republican, he represented Amherst County in the House of Delegates (1796–1799, 1802–1805) and sat on the General Court prior to being appointed to the Court of Appeals. Cabell was deliberate and thorough, as governor and in his judicial career. Although he rarely filed a separate opinion during his time on the Court of Appeals, he was known to reverse a previous decision. When he retired in 1852 because of his poor health, Cabell was among the longest-serving judges in the history of the state supreme court. Cabell County, created in 1809 and now part of West Virginia, is named for him. He died in 1853.
Fri, 02 Feb 2018 17:04:07 EST]]>
/Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Wed, 31 Jan 2018 11:15:45 EST <![CDATA[Slave Housing in Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Slave housing in Virginia varied widely depending on the context: whether it was rural or urban, whether it was on an elite plantation or a small farm, and even whether it was located close to or far from the slaveholder's main house. Many of the first Africans who came to Virginia lived in barracks-style housing and other, less-than-permanent accommodations. As the enslaved population grew, however, houses were designed and constructed specifically for black laborers and, in particular, those living in family units. Most slave quarters were constructed of wood, and many were log and earthfast structures with no foundations. Those located closest to elite plantation houses were generally better built, with wooden frames and masonry chimneys and foundations. Separate one or two-room structures, designed to accommodate one- or two-family units, were the most popular house type, although many enslaved laborers slept where they worked—in kitchens, laundries, and stables. Slaves who were hired out in cities sometimes resided in separate "shanty towns." Few intact slave quarters exist in the twenty-first century—likely fewer than 300—and most of those are relatively large and well-built.
Wed, 31 Jan 2018 11:15:45 EST]]>
/Poplar_Forest Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Poplar Forest]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poplar_Forest Poplar Forest, located in Bedford County, was Thomas Jefferson's villa retreat. Jefferson's wife, Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, inherited the Poplar Forest land from her father in 1773, and work on the distinctive octagonal house began in 1806. Although the house was framed by 1809, the year he retired from public service, Jefferson finished Poplar Forest slowly, directing work on the property until his death in 1826. Located about seventy miles from Monticello, Jefferson's second home became more than just a getaway; it served as an inspiration as he worked on its idealistic, innovative, and modern design, which integrated architecture and landscape. Poplar Forest's design shows the influence of ancient Roman, Renaissance, and eighteenth-century French and English architecture. It was the first octagonal house in America and one of the few houses built to Jefferson's designs that survive. It was also an intimate place where Jefferson spent time with his family. After Jefferson's death, ownership of the house and property passed to his grandson, Francis Eppes, who had resided there with his family since 1823, the year of Jefferson's last visit. In 1828 Eppes sold it and the surrounding 1,074 acres to a neighboring farmer. Poplar Forest was privately owned until 1984, when it was purchased by a group of local citizens that had formed the nonprofit Corporation for Jefferson's Poplar Forest. The house opened to the public in 1986. The archaeological excavation of the grounds and the restoration of the house and grounds began in 1990.
Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:23:46 EST]]>
/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Slave Clothing and Adornment in Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Slave clothing and adornment varied across time and across Virginia. In West Africa, where many American slaves originated, clothing was minimal, and even that was generally stripped from newly enslaved people just prior to the Middle Passage. In Virginia, slaves were outfitted with European clothing they often found to be constricting and uncomfortable. The fabrics used for construction tended to be inferior, with their owners using whatever was most cost-effective. Homespun Virginia cloth and imported osnaburg fabric (made from flax and hemp) were common in the eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century, with the rise of cotton production, blends such as jean cloth became more common and allowed owners to provide slaves clothing that was untailored and ready-made. The most common practice was to distribute clothes in twice-a-year allotments, with liveried (uniformed) and domestic slaves receiving higher-quality clothing than field slaves, who wore the plainest and coarsest clothing. Children wore simple gowns. Boys transitioned to breeches, or short pants, and then to long pants and girls wore adult dresses when they began to menstruate. Plain leather shoes and sometimes hats were also included in allotments, while women, reflecting West African traditions, sometimes wore cloth head wraps. To aid in running away, some slaves stole better clothes while others saved money and purchased or, in some instances, earned better attire.
Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:08:18 EST]]>
/Tait_Bacon_1796-1871 Thu, 25 Jan 2018 15:51:11 EST <![CDATA[Tait, Bacon (1796–1871)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tait_Bacon_1796-1871 Bacon Tait was one of the most successful Richmond slave traders and jail operators in the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born near Lynchburg, he served briefly during the War of 1812 and spent time working in Richmond before relocating there permanently by 1828. In that year he made his first significant transaction in slaves, selling thirty-seven in New Orleans and entering into a year-long, unsuccessful partnership with two other men. About the same time Tait began what would be a longstanding business relationship with Thomas Boudar that included the buying and selling of slaves and the operation of a so-called jail for the confinement of enslaved men, women, and children awaiting sale. Tait probably first built the facility that came to be known as Lumpkin's Jail before constructing an even bigger one on the corner of Fifteenth and Cary streets. Although his business was not widely considered to be a respectable one, Tait served four terms on the Richmond City Council (1847–1851). Between 1843 and 1848 he fathered four children, including twins, with Courtney Fountain, a free black woman, and in 1851 Tait and Fountain moved to Salem, Massachusetts. He lived in Richmond during the Civil War and his wealth survived the war intact. He died in 1871.
Thu, 25 Jan 2018 15:51:11 EST]]>
/Lumpkin_s_Jail Thu, 25 Jan 2018 15:48:37 EST <![CDATA[Lumpkin's Jail]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lumpkin_s_Jail Lumpkin's Jail was a slave-trading complex located on Wall Street, in the Shockoe Bottom district of Richmond, which operated from the 1830s until the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). The slave-trader Bacon Tait owned the property first, followed by Lewis A. Collier, who built the so-called jail, which confined enslaved African Americans prior to their sale. Robert Lumpkin purchased the property in 1844 and used the facility to pursue his own slave-trading business, accommodating his clients in a boardinghouse on the premises. Lumpkin also charged slave dealers and owners a daily fee for holding their slaves. Anthony Burns, a runaway slave returned to Richmond under the Fugitive Slave Law, was housed at Lumpkin's for four months under appalling conditions. Lumpkin died in 1866, and his widow, a formerly enslaved woman named Mary, leased the property to a Baptist minister who founded the Colver Institute, a religious school for emancipated African Americans, and held classes in the former jail building. The school eventually became Virginia Union University. The jail was demolished by 1876 and large industrial buildings later occupied the site. Its history was largely forgotten until 2005, when archaeologists began the first phase of an investigation that eventually found evidence of the complex, including the original jail building buried nearly fifteen feet beneath the modern ground level. The archaeological remains were subsequently reburied, and the Lumpkin's Jail site is commemorated as one of seventeen places on the Richmond Slave Trail.
Thu, 25 Jan 2018 15:48:37 EST]]>
/Beale_R_L_T_1819-1893 Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:23:44 EST <![CDATA[Beale, R. L. T. (1819–1893)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beale_R_L_T_1819-1893 R. L. T. Beale was twice a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1847–1849; 1879–1881), member of the Convention of 1850–1851, member of the Senate of Virginia (1857–1860), and a Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After earning a law degree at the University of Virginia, Beale practiced law in his native Westmoreland County. He was first elected to Congress as a proslavery Democrat but did not seek reelection. Instead, he served as a delegate to the state constitutional convention in 1850, generally opposing proposals to make state government more democratic. After serving a term in the state senate, he joined the Confederate cavalry and fought with the Army of Northern Virginia throughout the war. In June 1862, a newspaper reporter accompanied Beale during J. E. B. Stuart's famous ride around the Union army, and in March 1864, Beale's cavalry detachment killed Union colonel Ulric Dahlgren, ending the Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid. After the war, Beale wrote a history of the 9th Virginia, published posthumously, and served a second term in Congress.
Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:23:44 EST]]>
/Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Mon, 18 Dec 2017 16:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Veney, Bethany (ca. 1815­–1916)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Bethany Veney was an enslaved woman who, prior to the American Civil War (1861–1865), lived in the Shenandoah Valley and, in 1889, published The Narrative of Bethany Veney, a Slave Woman. Born near Luray, in what later became Page County, Veney labored for several different owners. She married Jerry Fickland, an enslaved man who was later sold south. Veney herself was placed on the auction block in Richmond but foiled the sale—and the separation from her family that it guaranteed—by pretending to be sick. After marrying her second husband, Frank Veney, a free black man, Bethany Veney negotiated a small amount of freedom by hiring out her labor and paying her owner a yearly fee. When her owner's debts threatened the arrangement, Veney found relief in her employer, a copper miner from Rhode Island. He purchased Veney and her daughter and took them north. Veney eventually settled in Worcester, Massachusetts, where she dictated her life story in 1889 and died in 1916.
Mon, 18 Dec 2017 16:44:05 EST]]>
/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_9_1836 Mon, 20 Nov 2017 16:31:44 EST <![CDATA[Meeting of the Faculty (November 9, 1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_9_1836 Mon, 20 Nov 2017 16:31:44 EST]]> /Meeting_of_the_Faculty_May_22_1830 Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:29:48 EST <![CDATA[Meeting of the Faculty (May 22, 1830)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_May_22_1830 Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:29:48 EST]]> /Davis_John_Staige_1824-1885 Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:59:10 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John Staige (1824–1885)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_Staige_1824-1885 John Staige Davis was a professor of medicine at the University of Virginia from 1847 until 1885. Born in Albemarle County, he was the son of John A. G. Davis, a law professor at the university who was shot and killed by a student there in 1840. The younger Davis practiced medicine in western Virginia before joining the faculty himself in 1847. Preferring a practical approach to anatomy instruction, and thwarted by a Virginia law that prohibited the disinterment of dead bodies, he resorted to grave robbing. Most of the bodies came from African American and pauper cemeteries, others from executed convicts. In 1859, Davis requested the bodies of men sentenced to be hanged after John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry but received none. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Davis served as a Confederate surgeon in Charlottesville. He died in 1885.
Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:59:10 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (July 4–7, 1840)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST]]> /Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_12_1836 Thu, 02 Nov 2017 11:53:28 EST <![CDATA[Meeting of the Faculty (November 12, 1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_12_1836 Thu, 02 Nov 2017 11:53:28 EST]]> /Billy_Billy_or_Blind_ca_1805-1855 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 16:43:17 EST <![CDATA[Billy or Blind Billy (ca. 1805–1855)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Billy_Billy_or_Blind_ca_1805-1855 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 16:43:17 EST]]> /Brown_Abram_d_1840 Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Abram (d. 1840)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Abram_d_1840 Abram Brown was a Baptist lay leader in Charles City County who helped found Elam Baptist Church in 1818. Born free, Brown farmed on land he inherited from his father and was wealthy compared to most African Americans of his day. He joined a Baptist church in Petersburg but soon after established a separate church on his Charles City County land and took a leadership role in his local religious community. In 1818 he transferred the land to the church, thus taking credit as founder of Elam Baptist Church. Little else is known about Brown's life. He had at least eight children, many of whom, along with their own children and grandchildren, played important roles in the African American community of Charles City County. Brown died in 1840.
Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST]]>
/Abrams_Joseph_1791-1854 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:23:30 EST <![CDATA[Abrams, Joseph (1791–1854)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abrams_Joseph_1791-1854 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:23:30 EST]]> /William_Daniel_Jr_1806-1873 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:19:12 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, William Jr. (1806–1873)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/William_Daniel_Jr_1806-1873 William Daniel Jr. was a member of the House of Delegates (1831–1832, 1835–1836, 1838) and served as a judge of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals (1847– 1865). Born in Winchester, Daniel earned a law degree from the University of Virginia and practiced in Lynchburg. He represented Campbell County in the House of Delegates, and during the slavery debate of 1831–1832 spoke against a proposal to free children born to enslaved mothers. Elected to the Supreme Court of Appeals in 1846, he sat on the bench through the American Civil War (1861–1865) issuing respected rulings on equity jurisprudence and property rights. In 1861, he wrote an opinion in Baker v. Wise, Governor, which upheld a Virginia law that required state inspectors to verify that ships owned out of state and bound for the North did not harbor fugitive slaves. After the war Daniel resumed his law practice in Lynchburg and died in nearby Nelson County in 1873.
Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:19:12 EST]]>
/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST <![CDATA[Crane, William (1790–1866)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST]]> /Colson_William_1805-1835 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 15:48:48 EST <![CDATA[Colson, William (1805–1835)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colson_William_1805-1835 William Colson was a merchant who helped establish Roberts, Colson, and Company, one of the first African American transatlantic shipping companies. Born in Petersburg the son of a free black barber, he was probably self-educated. His partnership with Joseph Jenkins Roberts, another free black businessman, began during or before 1829. They acquired a schooner and began to trade between the United States and Liberia, where Roberts moved. The business did well and Colson lived well in Petersburg. In 1835 he visited Liberia to acquaint himself with the business there and to serve a year as a missionary. Not long after arriving, however, he became ill and died.
Wed, 06 Sep 2017 15:48:48 EST]]>
/Dickinson_R_H_1811_or_1812-1873 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:42:53 EST <![CDATA[Dickinson, R. H. (1811 or 1812–1873)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dickinson_R_H_1811_or_1812-1873 R. H. Dickinson was a slave trader in Richmond. Born probably on his parents' Caroline County plantation, he moved to Richmond and went into the slave-trading business there with one or both of his brothers. They purchased slaves in Virginia and Maryland for resale in bigger, Deep South markets, and in 1856 may have earned as much as $200,000. Dickinson was a part owner of the Saint Charles Hotel, where he conducted at least some of his sales and may have had an office. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in the state reserves and sold slaves right up to the fall of Richmond. The end of the Confederacy and the abolition of slavery erased much of Dickinson's wealth, and little is known of his life after the war. He died in 1873.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:42:53 EST]]>
/Prentis_John_B_1788-1848 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:33:13 EST <![CDATA[Prentis, John B. (1788–1848)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Prentis_John_B_1788-1848 John B. Prentis was a prominent slave trader in Richmond. Born in Williamsburg, he did not follow his father into politics and the law. Instead, he apprenticed as an architect in Philadelphia before working as a builder in Richmond. Early in his life Prentis may have harbored antislavery feelings, but by 1820 he had turned to the slave trade for a living. He spent summers traveling across the Upper South buying enslaved men, women, and children and then either reselling them in Richmond or transporting them to markets in the Deep South. By 1826 he had accumulated more than 100 acres of land in Richmond and a nice residence in the city's Church Hill neighborhood. He died in 1848 .
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:33:13 EST]]>
/Caldwell_Alfred_1817-1868 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 17:06:21 EST <![CDATA[Caldwell, Alfred (1817–1868)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Caldwell_Alfred_1817-1868 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 17:06:21 EST]]> /Washington_John_M_1838-1918 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST <![CDATA[Washington, John M. (1838–1918)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_John_M_1838-1918 John M. Washington was a slave in Fredericksburg who escaped to freedom during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and later wrote a narrative of his life entitled Memorys of the Past. Born in Fredericksburg, Washington spent his earliest years on an Orange County plantation where his mother had been hired out as a field laborer. Upon their return to Fredericksburg, Washington served as his owner's personal slave, remaining in that role even when his mother was hired out to a school principal in Staunton. In 1860, Washington labored in a Fredericksburg tobacco factory and then spent the next year as a waiter in Richmond. When Union troops occupied Fredericksburg in April 1862, he was tending bar in that city's Shakespeare Hotel and used the opportunity to escape to Union lines. Washington worked at the headquarters of Union general Rufus King until Union troops abandoned the city on August 31. He escaped to Washington, D.C., and was eventually joined there by his wife and newborn son, his mother, and her husband. Washington worked as a painter after the war and was active in the Baptist church. He wrote his narrative in 1873 and died at the Massachusetts home of one of his sons in 1918.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST]]>
/West_Virginia_Creation_of Tue, 08 Aug 2017 17:55:53 EST <![CDATA[West Virginia, Creation of]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/West_Virginia_Creation_of West Virginia was recognized by the U.S. government as the thirty-fifth state on June 20, 1863, an event that was the culmination of more than sixty years of heated sectional politics and legislative maneuverings. From the first political rumblings of new-state advocates at the turn of the nineteenth century through the formative sessions of the Wheeling conventions held from 1861 until 1863, the creation of West Virginia was a complex and contentious process that divided the residents, communities, and political leaders of Virginia. Spearheaded by northwestern Virginians, the statehood movement began as an effort to expand western political influence and the region's growing industrial economy. Final approval of West Virginia's statehood was forged amid the chaos and divisiveness of the secession debate and the bloodshed of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 17:55:53 EST]]>
/Blackford_Mary_Berkeley_Minor_1802-1896 Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:32:35 EST <![CDATA[Blackford, Mary Berkeley Minor (1802–1896)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackford_Mary_Berkeley_Minor_1802-1896 Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford was an antislavery leader who founded a female auxiliary of the American Colonization Society in Fredericksburg. Born in Fredericksburg, she was unusually well educated by the time she married the attorney William Blackford in 1825. Together they were active in the Episcopal Church and she was a lifelong temperance advocate. Unlike her husband, Blackford saw colonization as the first step toward the abolition of slavery, and she became the most prominent female advocate of colonization in Virginia. In 1829 she founded the Fredericksburg and Falmouth Female Auxiliary to the American Colonization Society, raising hundreds of dollars and recruiting elite women such as Dolley Madison as life members. As public support for colonization and emancipation waned, she turned her efforts to promoting the education of women in Liberia. When she and her husband moved to Lynchburg in 1846, her work ended, although not her strong feelings about the cause. She became increasingly alienated from her family and opposed secession in 1861. She died in 1896.
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:32:35 EST]]>
/Campbell_Archibald_W_1833-1899 Fri, 28 Jul 2017 15:52:48 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Archibald W. (1833–1899)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Archibald_W_1833-1899 Archibald W. Campbell was a journalist, abolitionist, and Republican Party leader. Born in Ohio, he grew up in western Virginia and studied law in New York, where he met the abolitionist and future secretary of state William H. Seward. Campbell followed Seward into the Republican Party and in 1856 purchased the Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, making it the most influential Virginia newspaper outside Richmond. During the American Civil War (1861–1865) Campbell helped lead the movement for the creation of West Virginia but fell out with many Republican Party leaders after the war. He never sought public office and died in 1899.
Fri, 28 Jul 2017 15:52:48 EST]]>
/Advertisement_by_Lewis_A_Collier_Richmond_Enquirer_August_23_1833 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:22:54 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement by Lewis A. Collier, Richmond Enquirer (August 23, 1833)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_by_Lewis_A_Collier_Richmond_Enquirer_August_23_1833 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:22:54 EST]]> /_Private_Jails_The_Liberator_December_27_1834 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:21:13 EST <![CDATA["Private Jails," The Liberator (December 27, 1834)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Private_Jails_The_Liberator_December_27_1834 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:21:13 EST]]> /Davis_Hector_1816-1863 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:09:00 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Hector (1816–1863)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Hector_1816-1863 Hector Davis was a prominent slave trader in Richmond in the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born probably in Goochland County, Davis moved to Richmond sometime in the 1840s and established there a slave trading business. He ran a so-called jail, where enslaved men, women, and children were confined awaiting sale. In 1859 his auction house alone did business the value of which exceeded all the flour and equaled all the tobacco exported from Virginia that year. Early in 1860 he and thirteen other men chartered the Traders Bank of Virginia, with Davis serving as the president. Davis never married, but he had several children with an enslaved woman he owned, Ann Banks Davis, whom he moved to Philadelphia about 1860 and freed in his will. Davis died in Richmond in 1863.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:09:00 EST]]>
/Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Ann Banks (1830–1907)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907 Ann Banks Davis was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Hector Davis. Little is known of Ann Davis's early life. She likely was the daughter of an enslaved woman named Mathilda Banks and did not take the name Davis until later in life. By 1852 she was owned by Hector Davis and that year bore him the first of at least four children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Davis's property, she could have consented to their physical relationship. By 1860, Hector Davis had moved Ann and her children to Philadelphia, where they continued to live after his death in 1863. He left them substantial money in his will but the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) rendered much of his inheritance worthless or unattainable. Davis died in 1907.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:05:24 EST]]>
/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Hinton, Corinna (1835–1887)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Corinna Hinton was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Silas Omohundro and helped him run his business. Little is known of Hinton's early life. By the time she was thirteen years old, she was owned by Omohundro and had given birth to the first of their seven children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Omohundro's property, Hinton could have consented to their physical relationship, although historians have varying interpretations. In addition to running the household, Hinton made clothes for slaves about to be sold and helped operate a boardinghouse. Omohundro died in 1864, freeing Hinton and acknowledging himself as the father of her children. She later went into business with a white journalist from Maine, Nathaniel Davidson. It is unclear whether the two married. Hinton died in 1887.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST]]>
/Barret_William_1786-1871 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 14:55:50 EST <![CDATA[Barret, William (1786–1871)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barret_William_1786-1871 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 14:55:50 EST]]> /Omohundro_Silas_1807-1864 Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:34:56 EST <![CDATA[Omohundro, Silas (1807–1864)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Omohundro_Silas_1807-1864 Silas Omohundro was a Richmond slave trader who also operated, with his enslaved concubine Corinna Hinton, a complex that included a slave jail and boardinghouse. Born in 1807 and raised on his father's farm in Fluvanna County, Omohundro worked as an agent for the slave-trading firm Franklin & Armfield, in Alexandria, before moving to Richmond by the mid-1840s. There he ran a boardinghouse for slave traders and a jail where they confined enslaved men, women, and children awaiting sale. Omohundro also engaged in the direct buying and selling of slaves, including those he and other traders called "fancy," a label that indicated that they were to be sold for sexual purposes. Although never legally married, Omohundro had children with at least three different women, including his slaves Louisa Tandy and Corinna Hinton. With the latter he had seven children and on at least two occasions introduced the light-skinned Hinton as his wife. In his will, executed in July 1864, Omohundro legally acknowledged Hinton's children as his own and freed them and their mother.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:34:56 EST]]>
/Slave_Trade_Eyre_Crowe_s_Images_of_the Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:17:22 EST <![CDATA[Slave Trade, Eyre Crowe's Images of the]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Trade_Eyre_Crowe_s_Images_of_the English painter Eyre Crowe's images of the American slave trade include a series of sketches later published as wood engravings and, in two instances, turned into oil paintings that depict the domestic trade in enslaved African Americans just before the American Civil War (1861–1865). These images provide some of the only eyewitness visual renderings of the slave trade in Richmond, the largest slave-trading center in the Upper South. An act of Congress had abolished the international slave trade in the United States effective 1808, but a domestic trade accounted for the sale of millions of slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South, where the cotton boom led to a near-bottomless market for enslaved labor. The process of trafficking slaves, which Crowe's images helped to illuminate and publicize, included auction houses, auction blocks, so-called slave jails, and transportation either on foot or by train. Crowe was visiting Richmond in 1853 as the secretary of British novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, who was on a lecture tour, when he witnessed and sketched a slave auction on Wall Street, down the hill from downtown Richmond. His sketching nearly caused him to be removed from the auction house. Later, he also witnessed and depicted slaves being taken to a railroad depot. Two paintings made from his sketches, After the Sale: Slaves Going South from Richmond and Slaves Waiting for Sale, Richmond, Virginia, were exhibited in Great Britain in 1854 and 1861 respectively. Together with Crowe's other images, these paintings played an important role in spreading antislavery awareness in both Britain and in America.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:17:22 EST]]>
/Trist_Nicholas_Philip_1800-1874 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:29:16 EST <![CDATA[Trist, Nicholas Philip (1800–1874)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trist_Nicholas_Philip_1800-1874 Nicholas Philip Trist was a diplomat who served as American consul to Cuba and helped to negotiate the end of the Mexican War (1846–1848). Born in Charlottesville to a family with a long acquaintance with Thomas Jefferson, Trist attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point without taking a degree and soon after married Jefferson's granddaughter, Virginia Jefferson Randolph. He served as clerk to the University of Virginia board of visitors, owned a newspaper in Charlottesville, and served briefly as President Andrew Jackson's private secretary. In 1833 Trist was appointed American consult to Cuba and he survived calls for his removal in 1839. Six years later President James K. Polk made Trist the State Department's chief clerk, and in 1847 dispatched him to Mexico with instructions to discreetly negotiate an end to the war. He did that, but not without confrontations with both the president and General Winfield Scott. After his return, Trist practiced law in New York, supported the Union during the American Civil War (1861–1865), and later moved to Alexandria. He died there in 1874.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:29:16 EST]]>
/Broaddus_William_F_1801-1876 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:14:46 EST <![CDATA[Broaddus, William F. (1801–1876)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Broaddus_William_F_1801-1876 William F. Broaddus was a Baptist minister. Born in what would later become Rappahannock County, he was educated there and in 1824 ordained as the pastor of the F. T. Baptist Church. Two years later he moved to Frederick County and advocated the work of traveling missionaries against the opposition of those who feared they would corrupt the principles of individual salvation. Broaddus's proposal that money be raised to evangelize among the poor led the Ketocton Baptist Association to deny him a seat and the Columbia Baptist Association, at least temporarily, to bar him from its conference. Broaddus eventually moved to Kentucky, then worked as an agent raising funds for Columbian College (later George Washington University) in Washington, D.C. In 1853, he became the pastor of Fredericksburg Baptist Church. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was briefly imprisoned by the U.S. Army as a Confederate sympathizer. From 1863 to 1868 he served as pastor of the Charlottesville Baptist Church before returning to Fredericksburg. He died there in 1876.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:14:46 EST]]>
/Crozet_Claudius_1789-1864 Mon, 15 May 2017 15:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Crozet, Claudius (1789–1864)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crozet_Claudius_1789-1864 Claudius Crozet was a civil engineer best known for his work blasting tunnels through the Blue Ridge Mountains. Born in France, he received a technical education and artillery training before entering the French army. He was captured by the Russians at the Battle of Borodino in 1812 and served two years as a prisoner of war. From 1816 to 1823 Crozet taught at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, after which he began the first of two stints as principal engineer for the Virginia Board of Public Works. A difficult man, Crozet clashed with government officials over transportation projects in western Virginia. He resigned in 1832 and spent time working in Louisiana before returning to the position in 1837 and serving until 1843. Crozet taught at the Virginia Military Institute and was the first president of its board. In 1849, as chief engineer for the Blue Ridge Railroad Company, he began work on a series of tunnels through the mountains separating Charlottesville and Staunton. The largest, designated the Crozet Tunnel, opened in April 1858. By that time Crozet had moved on to a water project in Washington, D.C., and in 1859 became the chief engineer of the Virginia and Kentucky Railroad. He died in 1864. The town of Crozet in Albemarle County is named for him.
Mon, 15 May 2017 15:44:05 EST]]>
/Blackford_William_1801-April_1864 Tue, 09 May 2017 16:31:48 EST <![CDATA[Blackford, William (1801–1864)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackford_William_1801-April_1864 William Blackford was a journalist and diplomat. Born in Maryland, he moved to Fredericksburg in 1825 to practice law. From 1828 to 1841 he owned the Fredericksburg Political Arena and Literary Messenger, which supported the Whig Party. With his wife, Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford, he was active in the colonization movement. From 1842 to 1845 he served as chargé d'affaires to the Republic of New Granada, helping to negotiate a new postal treaty. In 1846, he purchased a paper in Lynchburg, which he sold in 1850 to become postmaster. In 1853 he became the cashier of the new Exchange Bank of Lynchburg, a position he held until his death. Blackford supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and served as the Confederate States Treasury agent in Lynchburg. He died in 1864.
Tue, 09 May 2017 16:31:48 EST]]>
/Blind_Billy_Death_Notice_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_23_1855 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:41:18 EST <![CDATA[Blind Billy Death Notice, Richmond Daily Dispatch (April 23, 1855)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blind_Billy_Death_Notice_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_23_1855 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:41:18 EST]]> /_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST <![CDATA["Funeral Procession," Richmond Dispatch (June 7, 1854)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST]]> /Schele_de_Vere_Maximilian_1820-1898 Wed, 26 Apr 2017 13:04:09 EST <![CDATA[Schele De Vere, Maximilian (1820–1898)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Schele_de_Vere_Maximilian_1820-1898 Maximilian Schele De Vere was a professor of modern languages at the University of Virginia and a founding member of the American Philological Society. Born in Sweden, likely with the surname von Scheele, he later changed his name, possibly after marrying an Irish woman named De Vere. After studying languages in Germany, Schele De Vere edited a German-language newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and then studied Greek at Harvard. In 1844, he joined the faculty at the University of Virginia, teaching there for more than fifty years. He supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865), serving as captain of a home guard unit. Before and after the war he published regularly, including translations, collections of essays, and textbooks. He resigned his teaching position in 1895 amid accusations he had sent libelous letters to another professor and the chair of the faculty. He also may have become addicted to morphine taken to control back pain. Schele De Vere died in Washington, D.C., in 1898.
Wed, 26 Apr 2017 13:04:09 EST]]>
/_Washington_s_Runaway_Slave_The_Liberator_August_22_1845 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:48:40 EST <![CDATA["Washington's Runaway Slave," The Liberator (August 22, 1845)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Washington_s_Runaway_Slave_The_Liberator_August_22_1845 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:48:40 EST]]> /Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST <![CDATA[Judge, Oney (ca. 1773–1848)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Oney Judge was the enslaved personal attendant of Martha Custis Washington when she ran away from the President's House in Philadelphia in 1796. Born about 1773 at Mount Vernon, Judge began laboring in the mansion when she was ten years old. After George Washington was elected president in 1789, she accompanied the family to New York and then, when the federal capital moved, to Philadelphia. On May 21, 1796, she escaped from the president's mansion while the family ate dinner and boarded a ship for Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Washington's agents tracked her there, twice speaking with her, in 1796 and 1799, but failing to apprehend her. Judge married the free black sailor John Staines in 1797 and the couple had three children before his death in 1803. Oney Judge Staines lived the rest of her life in poverty. In 1845 and 1847 she gave interviews to abolitionist newspapers, recounting the story of her life with the Washington family and her escape from slavery. She died in Greenland, New Hampshire, in 1848.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST]]>
/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 14:23:44 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Henry Box (1815 or 1816–1897)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Henry Box Brown was an abolitionist lecturer and performer. Born a slave in Louisa County, he worked in a Richmond tobacco factory and lived in a rented house. Then, in 1848, his wife, who was owned by another master and who was pregnant with their fourth child, was sold away to North Carolina, along with their children. Brown resolved to escape from slavery and enlisted the help of a free black and a white slaveowner, who conspired to ship him in a box to Philadelphia. In March 1849 the package was accepted there by a leader of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. As a free man, Brown lectured across New England on the evils of slavery and participated in the publication of the Narrative of Henry Box Brown (1849). In 1850, a moving panorama, Henry Box Brown's Mirror of Slavery, opened in Boston. That same year, Brown, worried that he might be re-enslaved, moved to England, where he lectured, presented his panorama, and performed as a hypnotist. In 1875, he returned to the United States with his wife and daughter Annie and performed as a magician. Brown died in Toronto on June 15, 1897. He stands as a powerful symbol of the Underground Railroad and enslaved African Americans' thirst for freedom.
Fri, 14 Apr 2017 14:23:44 EST]]>
/_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST <![CDATA["An ACT concerning descendants of indians and other persons of mixed blood, not being free negroes or mulattoes" (February 25, 1833)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST]]> /Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST <![CDATA[Bassett, Burwell (1764–1841)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST]]> /Cary_Lott_ca_1780-1828 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:41:35 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Lott (ca. 1780–1828)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Lott_ca_1780-1828 Lott Cary was a Baptist minister and one of the first American settlers of Liberia. Born enslaved about 1780, he labored in Richmond tobacco warehouses before purchasing his own freedom by about 1813. He bought land in Henrico County, married, and became a popular lay preacher. In 1815 Cary helped found the Richmond African Baptist Missionary Society and after the establishment of the American Colonization Society a year later, prepared to immigrate with other free blacks to Liberia, in West Africa. He arrived there in 1821 and helped to settle what became the town of Monrovia in 1824. Demonstrating a wide range of leadership skills, he tended the sick, organized a native labor force, established a joint stock company, and helped extend the settlement's territory. He was twice elected vice agent of Liberia, in 1826 and 1827, and president of the Monrovia Baptist Missionary Society. He assumed leadership of Monrovia in 1828 but died later that year in an accidental gunpowder explosion. After his death, Cary became something of a folk hero, becoming even more eloquent and pious than he had been in life.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:41:35 EST]]>
/Barrett_Gilbert_Hunt_the_City_Blacksmith_by_Philip_1859 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 10:41:13 EST <![CDATA[Gilbert Hunt, the City Blacksmith by Philip Barrett (1859)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_Gilbert_Hunt_the_City_Blacksmith_by_Philip_1859 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 10:41:13 EST]]> /Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST <![CDATA[Hunt, Gilbert (ca. 1780–1863)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Gilbert Hunt was an African American blacksmith in Richmond who became known in the city for his aid during two fires: the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 and the Virginia State Penitentiary fire in 1823. Born enslaved in King William County, Hunt trained as a blacksmith in Richmond and remained there most of the rest of his life. After the Richmond Theatre caught fire on December 26, 1811, he ran to the scene and, with the help of Dr. James D. McCaw, helped to rescue as many as a dozen women. He performed a similar feat of courage on August 8, 1823, during the penitentiary fire. Hunt purchased his freedom and in 1829 immigrated to the West African colony of Liberia, where he stayed only eight months. After returning to Richmond, he resumed blacksmithing and served as an outspoken, sometimes-controversial deacon in the First African Baptist Church. In 1848 he helped form the Union Burial Ground Society. In 1859, a Richmond author published a biography of Hunt, largely in the elderly blacksmith's own words, but portraying him as impoverished and meek, a depiction at odds with the historical record. Hunt died in 1863.
Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST]]>
/_A_Colored_Hero_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_November_30_1858 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:14:50 EST <![CDATA["A Colored Hero," Richmond Daily Dispatch (November 30, 1858)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Colored_Hero_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_November_30_1858 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:14:50 EST]]> /Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Excerpts from Twenty-Eight Years a Slave by Thomas L. (1909)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST]]> /Constitution_of_the_Union_Burial_Ground_Society_January_23_1848 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 12:12:11 EST <![CDATA[Constitution of the Union Burial Ground Society (January 23, 1848)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Constitution_of_the_Union_Burial_Ground_Society_January_23_1848 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 12:12:11 EST]]> /An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST <![CDATA[An ACT providing for the voluntary enslavement of the free negroes of the commonwealth (February 18, 1856)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST]]> /An_ACT_to_amend_and_explain_an_act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_4_1805 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:18:44 EST <![CDATA[An ACT to amend and explain an act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 4, 1805)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_to_amend_and_explain_an_act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_4_1805 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:18:44 EST]]> /An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST <![CDATA[An act to amend an act entitled, "an act reducing into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes" (1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST]]> /An_ACT_more_effectually_to_restrain_the_practice_of_negroes_going_at_large_January_25_1803 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:44:45 EST <![CDATA[An ACT more effectually to restrain the practice of negroes going at large (January 25, 1803)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_more_effectually_to_restrain_the_practice_of_negroes_going_at_large_January_25_1803 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:44:45 EST]]> /An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend the act concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes (April 7, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST]]> /Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:30:30 EST <![CDATA[Baldwin, John Brown (1820–1873)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 John Brown Baldwin was an attorney, member of the Virginia Convention of 1861, member of the Confederate House of Representatives (1861–1865), and Speaker of the House of Delegates (1865–1867). After attending the University of Virginia, Baldwin studied law in his native Staunton and became politically active on behalf of his law partner and brother-in-law Alexander H. H. Stuart, a Whig Party candidate for presidential elector in 1844. Baldwin served a term in the House of Delegates and, during the secession crisis of 1860–1861, was a staunch Unionist who, as a delegate to the secession convention, voted against leaving the Union, even meeting privately with U.S. president Abraham Lincoln in an attempt to find a compromise. After a brief stint in the Confederate army at the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in the Confederate Congress. After the war, he was a Conservative Party leader and, as Speaker of the House of Delegates, became such an expert on parliamentary law that the rules of the House became known as Baldwin's Rules. He was a moderate who supported limits on the rights of African Americans and, in 1869, as a member of the so-called Committee of Nine, met with U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant to negotiate the end of Reconstruction in Virginia. He died in 1873.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:30:30 EST]]>
/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Peter V. (1784–1860)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Peter V. Daniel was a member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810) and the Council of State (1812–1836), a U.S. district court judge (1836–1841), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1841–1860). Born in Stafford County to a wealthy family, Daniel was educated at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and studied law in Richmond with Edmund Randolph. (He later married Randolph's daughter.) Daniel was elected to the House of Delegates in 1808 as an advocate of states' rights and limited government, and that year he mortally wounded John Seddon in a duel fought in Maryland. He served on the Council of State for more than two decades, serving as president from 1818, making him acting governor in the absence of the chief executive. After the death of Associate Justice Philip Pendleton Barbour, a fellow Virginian, Daniel won confirmation to the seat after a fight in the U.S. Senate. On the bench, Daniel was sharply conservative, at times provincial, and often acerbic and witty in his opinions. He was a strong supporter of slavery and wrote a separate, even more strongly worded opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857). He died in 1860.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST]]>
/Custis_William_H_B_1814-1889 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 16:09:51 EST <![CDATA[Custis, William H. B. (1814–1889)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_William_H_B_1814-1889 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 16:09:51 EST]]> /Barbour_B_Johnson_1821-1894 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:39:25 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, B. Johnson (1821–1894)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_B_Johnson_1821-1894 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:39:25 EST]]> /Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Mary Lee Fitzhugh (1788–1853)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Mary Lee Fitzhugh Custis was an Episcopal lay leader whose efforts helped to revive Virginia's Episcopal church early in the nineteenth century. Custis's father, William Fitzhugh, served in the Continental Congress. Her husband, George Washington Parke Custis, was the stepgrandson of George Washington and well-known writer and orator. Their daughter, Mary Randolph Custis, married Robert E. Lee. Mary Custis lived at Arlington, a plantation in Alexandria County, and from there involved herself in raising funds for Episcopal schools and the American Colonization Society, which sought to free enslaved African Americans and send them to Africa. She and her daughter Mary also took an active role in the education of slaves. Custis died in 1853 and was buried at Arlington.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/_quot_The_Perpetuation_of_Our_Political_Institutions_quot_by_Abraham_Lincoln_January_27_1838 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:30:47 EST <![CDATA["The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions" by Abraham Lincoln (January 27, 1838)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Perpetuation_of_Our_Political_Institutions_quot_by_Abraham_Lincoln_January_27_1838 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:30:47 EST]]> /Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Arrivals from Virginia; an excerpt from The Refugee (1856)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST]]> /_quot_From_the_Vicksburg_Register_quot_The_Floridian_July_25_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:00 EST <![CDATA["From the Vicksburg Register," The Floridian (July 25, 1835)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_From_the_Vicksburg_Register_quot_The_Floridian_July_25_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:00 EST]]> /Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Mob, New-York Spectator (August 20, 1835)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST]]> /_quot_Horrible_Tragedy_quot_Raleigh_Register_and_North-Carolina_Gazette_May_24_1836 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:00 EST <![CDATA["Horrible Tragedy," Raleigh Register and North-Carolina Gazette (May 24, 1836)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Horrible_Tragedy_quot_Raleigh_Register_and_North-Carolina_Gazette_May_24_1836 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:00 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST <![CDATA[The Confessions of Nat Turner by Thomas R. Gray (1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST]]> /Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John A. G. (1802–1840)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 John A. G. Davis was a law professor at the University of Virginia who was murdered there by a student. Born in Middlesex County, Davis attended the College of William and Mary and then, after marrying a grandniece of Thomas Jefferson, the recently founded University of Virginia. He established a law practice in Albemarle County, helped found a newspaper, and then, in 1830, joined the University of Virginia's faculty as a professor of law. In his publications, Davis defended states' rights and limited government, supporting nullification in 1832. A popular but strict professor, he used his role as faculty chairman in 1836 to help expel about seventy student-militia members, leading to a riot. Four years later, on the anniversary of that riot, two students in masks shot off their weapons outside Davis's residence, Pavilion X. When Davis confronted them, one of the students, Joseph G. Semmes, shot the professor dead. Semmes fled the state and later committed suicide. Davis died two days later, and his murder helped finally to calm years of misbehavior among the university's students.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST]]>
/Tyler_John_1790-1862 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST <![CDATA[Tyler, John (1790–1862)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tyler_John_1790-1862 John Tyler was the tenth president of the United States. The son of a Virginia governor, Tyler had already been a member of the House of Delegates and the Council of State before being elected to Congress in 1816. After serving as governor of Virginia, the assembly elected him to the United States Senate. A slaveholder and Democrat, he supported states' rights and limited government. He broke with Andrew Jackson early in the 1830s over what he viewed as an alarming increase in federal power. Tyler joined the Whig Party and won the vice presidency in 1840 on a ticket with William Henry Harrison. Following Harrison's death in April 1841, Tyler became the first vice president to assume office after the death of the chief executive. His support of states' rights clashed with his party's prevailing belief in a stronger government, nearly causing the collapse of his administration. Tyler found some success in foreign affairs, but he left the White House in 1845 unpopular and expelled from the Whig Party. As the secession crisis intensified early in 1861, Tyler presided over the ill-fated Peace Conference to head off armed conflict. He served as a delegate to the Virginia convention that addressed the state's response to the crisis, ultimately voting for secession in April 1861. The following November Tyler won election to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before his term began.
Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST]]>
/Mahone_William_1826-1895 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST <![CDATA[Mahone, William (1826–1895)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mahone_William_1826-1895 William Mahone was a Confederate general, Virginia senator (1863–1865), railroad tycoon, U.S. senator (1881–1887), and leader of the short-lived Readjuster Party. Known by his nickname, "Little Billy," Mahone was, in the words of a contemporary, "short in stature, spare almost to emaciation, with [a] long beard, and keen, restless eyes." He attended the Virginia Military Institute on scholarship, worked as a railroad engineer, and eventually became president of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he distinguished himself at the Battle of the Crater (1864), leading a successful counterattack that also involved the massacre of surrendered black troops. After the war, Mahone founded the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad, which, before it failed, served his business interests in Norfolk and Southside Virginia. In 1881, he was elected to the United States Senate as a member of the Readjuster Party, an unlikely coalition of poor whites and African Americans interested in repudiating a portion of the massive state debt and, in so doing, restoring social services such as free public education. One of the most successful biracial political coalitions in the New South, the Readjusters held power until 1886, when Mahone lost his Senate seat. A gubernatorial bid in 1889 failed, and Mahone died in Washington, D.C., in 1895.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST]]>
/Republican_Party_in_Virginia_During_the_Nineteenth_Century Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:00:28 EST <![CDATA[The Republican Party of Virginia in the Nineteenth Century]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_in_Virginia_During_the_Nineteenth_Century The Republican Party of Virginia was founded in 1856 and by the end of the century had become, with the Democratic Party, one of the state's two main political parties. Most of its earliest members lived in western Virginia. While not necessarily opposing slavery itself, these Republicans opposed both its expansion into the western territories and the political and economic advantages it bestowed on Piedmont and Tidewater Virginians. They also opposed secession in 1861. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), most of antebellum Virginia's Republicans lived in West Virginia. The few who were left had been Unionists but were now divided on questions such as African American civil rights and whether to allow former Confederates back into government. Newly enfranchised African Americans also flocked to the party. In 1869, a coalition of Conservative Party members and moderate Republicans—in opposition to radical Republicans—won all statewide offices. In 1881, 300 African American Republicans met in Petersburg and voted to endorse the Readjuster Party, formed in support of lowering, or "readjusting," the state debt in order to protect services such as free public schools. This alliance gave Readjusters control of the General Assembly, the governorship, and a seat in the U.S. Senate. In an environment of racial tensions, and just days after the Danville Riot of 1883, the Democratic Party (formerly the Conservatives) swept to power. No Republican won statewide office again until 1969.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:00:28 EST]]>
/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST <![CDATA[Ruffner, William Henry (1824–1908)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 William Henry Ruffner was the designer and first superintendent of Virginia's public school system and later served as principal of the State Female Normal School (later Longwood University). Born in Lexington and a graduate of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University), he spent the years before the American Civil War (1861–1865) as a Presbyterian minister and farmer in Rockingham County. Ruffner owned slaves, and he advocated the gradual emancipation and colonization of the state's African Americans. He raised funds for the American Colonization Society. After the Constitution of 1869 mandated the creation of public schools, the General Assembly elected Ruffner the state's first superintendent of public instruction. During his twelve-year tenure Ruffner gave Virginia's public school system a lasting foundation and as he defended the system from vigorous opposition and the shortfalls generated by the state's crippling debt. In 1884 he became principal of the new State Female Normal School, where he served for three years. Ruffner spent his later years teaching geology, writing about the history of Washington and Lee University, and advocating the school system he helped create. He died at his daughter's home in Asheville, North Carolina, in 1908.
Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST]]>
/Blaettermann_George_1782-1850 Thu, 28 Apr 2016 08:12:34 EST <![CDATA[Blaettermann, George (1782–1850)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blaettermann_George_1782-1850 Thu, 28 Apr 2016 08:12:34 EST]]> /Dunglison_Robley_1798-1869 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:30:09 EST <![CDATA[Dunglison, Robley (1798–1869)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dunglison_Robley_1798-1869 Robley Dunglison was a medical educator and an author who was among the first faculty members of the University of Virginia. Born in England, he studied medicine in London, Edinburgh, Paris, and Germany, but found himself bored with general practice. In 1824 he accepted an offer to teach at the newly founded University of Virginia, becoming the first professional full-time professor of medicine in the United States. (Most professors also practiced medicine, but Dunglison's contract prohibited it.) He also served as Thomas Jefferson's consulting physician and attended the former president's death at Monticello in 1826. While in Charlottesville, Dunglison published his landmark work, Human Physiology (1832), and a medical dictionary. He taught at Virginia for nine years before accepting a position at the University of Maryland and then, three years after that, at Jefferson Medical College, in Philadelphia, where he stayed for the rest of his career. Dunglison died in 1853.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:30:09 EST]]>
/Winder_John_H_1800-1865 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 17:13:17 EST <![CDATA[Winder, John H. (1800–1865)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Winder_John_H_1800-1865 John H. Winder was a Confederate general who served as provost marshal of Richmond (1862–1864) and commissary general of Confederate prisons (1864–1865) during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A career military officer, Winder served with distinction during both the Second Seminole War (1835–1842) and the Mexican War (1846–1848), but faced criticism from Union officials and, subsequently, historians for his management of Richmond's wartime prisons and, beginning in June 1864, the notorious Andersonville Prison in Georgia. Described by his biographer as "short-tempered" and "aloof," Winder was responsible for the Castle Thunder, Belle Isle, and Libby prisons when they became infamous in the North for their poor conditions. While he was at Andersonville, the mortality rate of Union prisoners surged as a result of overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, and poor rations. Winder's defenders argue that he struggled with an inefficient Confederate bureaucracy and scarce resources, and that he instituted policies, late in the war, that reduced the number of prisoner deaths. He died of a heart attack in February 1865; his subordinate at Andersonville, Henry H. Wirz, was hanged later that year.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 17:13:17 EST]]>
/Dinsmore_James_1771_or_1772-1830 Thu, 31 Mar 2016 17:44:06 EST <![CDATA[Dinsmore, James (1771 or 1772–1830)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinsmore_James_1771_or_1772-1830 James Dinsmore served as Thomas Jefferson's master carpenter for more than a decade. Born in Ireland, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1798 and began work for Jefferson soon after. Living and working at Monticello, in Albemarle County, he was responsible for much of the house's woodwork and furniture. In 1809, he and John Neilson oversaw the expansion of James Madison's Orange County plantation, Montpelier. The two worked on some of Virginia's most noted architecture, including the University of Virginia's Rotunda, Jefferson's retreat at Poplar Forest, in Bedford County, and John Hartwell Cocke's Upper Bremo home, in Fluvanna County. Late in his career Dinsmore designed and constructed Estouteville, a mansion south of Charlottesville, noted for its Tuscan exterior porticoes and great interior hall with an elaborate Doric frieze. Dinsmore drowned in 1830.
Thu, 31 Mar 2016 17:44:06 EST]]>
/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, John Hartwell (1780–1866)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 John Hartwell Cocke was a farmer whose plantation, Bremo, in Fluvanna County, was both architecturally and scientifically innovative. He also was a reformer who advocated temperance, the end of tobacco production in central Virginia, and the colonization of the state's slaves. Closely involved with the founding of the University of Virginia, he served on the school's board of visitors from 1819 until 1856. Born in Surry County, Cocke inherited Bremo and moved to the estate in 1809. There he worked out new methods of scientific farming and helped to found the Agricultural Society of Albemarle. He designed, or helped to design, various parts of Bremo, as well as buildings elsewhere in Fluvanna County. After the death of his first wife in 1816, Cocke embraced evangelical Christianity, which informed his work on behalf of temperance causes—he served as president of state and national temperance unions—and against the cultivation of tobacco. Despite owning slaves himself, he thought slavery to be against God's will and argued that removing African Americans to Africa was the best solution to the institution's various evils. Cocke's opposition to abolitionism and his support of the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) caused his views to become pro-slavery over time. He died at Bremo in 1866.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST]]>
/Cocke_Philip_St_George_1809-1861 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:35:28 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, Philip St. George (1809–1861)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_Philip_St_George_1809-1861 Philip St. George Cocke was a wealthy plantation owner in Powhatan County and in Mississippi, who accumulated hundreds of slaves and thousands of acres of land. He became a leading advocate of agricultural interests, serving as president of the Virginia State Agricultural Society from 1853 to 1856, and promoting agricultural education. Cocke served as a lieutenant in the United States Army during the South Carolina Nullification Crisis in 1832, and in 1860, organized a cavalry troop in response to John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry. When volunteers were combined into the Confederate army following the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), Cocke's rank was reduced from brigadier general to colonel. He took offense and later complained bitterly when Confederate general Pierre G. T. Beauregard did not praise him enough during the First Battle of Manassas (1861). In a state of despondency and mental anguish over what he regarded as poor treatment by General Robert E. Lee and others, he committed suicide on December 26, 1861.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:35:28 EST]]>
/Cabell_Joseph_C_1778-1856 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:08:30 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, Joseph C. (1778–1856)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_Joseph_C_1778-1856 Joseph C. Cabell was member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810, 1831–1835) and the Senate of Virginia (1810–1829) and served as president of the James River and Kanawha Company (1835–1846). He also served as rector of the University of Virginia from 1834 to 1836 and again from 1845 to 1856. Born in Amherst County, Cabell studied law, including under St. George Tucker, whose stepdaughter he later married. Rather than practice, he embarked on a political career as a Jeffersonian Republican. He made little mark in the General Assembly, however, until in 1815 his friend Thomas Jefferson tapped him to lead the legislative fight to charter and fund Central College, or what later became the University of Virginia. Cabell successfully argued both for the need of a state university and for its establishment near Charlottesville. After his retirement from the assembly, Cabell leveraged his interest in economic development into leadership of the James River and Kanawha Company, which sought to build a canal between Richmond and the Ohio River. The canal reached only as far as Buchanan, in Botetourt County, and Cabell resigned the company's presidency in 1846. He died at his plantation in Nelson County a decade later.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:08:30 EST]]>
/Fitzhugh_George_1806-1881 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Fitzhugh, George (1806–1881)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fitzhugh_George_1806-1881 George Fitzhugh was a proslavery writer best known for two books: Sociology for the South; or the Failure of Free Society (1854) and Cannibals All! or, Slaves Without Masters (1857). Born in Prince William County and raised in King George County, Fitzhugh studied law before marrying and establishing a practice in Caroline County. In the years before the American Civil War (1861–1865), Fitzhugh distinguished himself for his aggressive and provocative defenses of slavery. In Fitzhugh's writings, Virginia slaveholders presided over a society that was more free than in factory towns in the North and where enslaved African Americans were well treated and even better off enslaved. He argued for the benefits of slavery in general, regardless of the slave's skin color, although he also asserted the moral inferiority of black people. In addition to publishing book-length arguments, Fitzhugh traveled widely, including in the North, where he sometimes debated abolitionists. In order to pay for his travels and publishing, Fitzhugh, ironically, may have had to sell many of his slaves. Before the war he worked in Washington, D.C., briefly, during the war for the Confederate Treasury Department in Richmond, and after the war for the Freedmen's Bureau. He later moved to Kentucky and then Texas, where he died in 1881.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:22:49 EST]]>
/Burns_Anthony_1834-1862 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:26:59 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony (1834–1862)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_1834-1862 Anthony Burns was a fugitive slave from Virginia who, while living in Boston in 1854, became the principal in a famous court case brought in an effort to extradite him back to the South. Born in Stafford County, Burns was the property of the merchant Charles F. Suttle, who later hired him out to William Brent, of Falmouth. In 1854, Burns escaped slavery and traveled to Boston, where he wrote a letter back to one of his brothers. Intercepted by Suttle, the letter revealed Burns's whereabouts, and Suttle and Brent themselves traveled to Boston and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. The subsequent rendition trial sparked the interest of antislavery activists, and an attempt at freeing Burns by force killed a federal marshal. Burns eventually lost his case and was sold to a man in North Carolina. Boston activists later purchased his freedom, however, and he attended school in Ohio and lectured on his experiences. He ended up in Canada, where he died in 1862 from health problems related to his post-trial confinement.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:26:59 EST]]>
/Bonnycastle_Charles_1796-1840 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:33:31 EST <![CDATA[Bonnycastle, Charles (1796–1840)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bonnycastle_Charles_1796-1840 Charles Bonnycastle was a professor of natural philosophy and mathematics at the University of Virginia from 1825 until his death in 1840. Born in England, Bonnycastle was the son of a mathematics professor at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. Bonnycastle himself attended the academy and contributed to his father's noted textbook. In 1824 he accepted an offer to join the faculty at the newly established University of Virginia, teaching natural philosophy and later mathematics and engineering. Bonnycastle proved an effective teacher, using updated pedagogy designed to engage beginning students and, in 1834, publishing his own textbook, Inductive Geometry. He died in 1840.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:33:31 EST]]>
/Brodnax_William_H_ca_1786-1834 Thu, 25 Feb 2016 15:53:08 EST <![CDATA[Brodnax, William H. (ca. 1786–1834)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brodnax_William_H_ca_1786-1834 William H. Brodnax was a member of the House of Delegates (1818–1819, 1830–1833) and of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829. A native of Brunswick County, he studied and then practiced law in Petersburg and lived on a 1,600-acre plantation in Dinwiddie County. During the constitutional convention, he supported policies that extended white male suffrage while retaining most political advantages enjoyed by eastern Virginians over their western counterparts. As a brigadier general of the state militia, he led the welcoming escort of the marquis de Lafayette in 1824 and, in 1831, commanded the forces that put down Nat Turner's Rebellion. During the debate on slavery in the ensuing session of the General Assembly, he chaired a select committee and proposed a plan to colonize the state's free and enslaved African Americans. A member of the Whig Party and a supporter of states' rights, he died of cholera in 1834.
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 15:53:08 EST]]>
/Cottrell_Sally_d_1875 Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:44:56 EST <![CDATA[Cole, Sally Cottrell (d. 1875)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cottrell_Sally_d_1875 Sally Cottrell was an enslaved maid and seamstress. Born sometime around 1800, she served as a maid to Ellen Wayles Randolph at Monticello from 1809 until 1824, after which Randolph married and moved to Boston. Cottrell was then hired out to a University of Virginia professor, who later purchased her with the intention of freeing her. It is unclear whether Cottrell was ever officially freed, but by early 1828 she was working on her own as a seamstress. She was baptized in Charlottesville in 1841, married in 1846, and died in 1875. She had no children.
Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:44:56 EST]]>
/Emmet_John_Patten_1796-1842 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 16:14:00 EST <![CDATA[Emmet, John Patten (1796–1842)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Emmet_John_Patten_1796-1842 John Patten Emmet was a chemistry professor at the University of Virginia from 1825 until his death in 1842. Born in Ireland, he was the nephew of the Irish nationalist Robert Emmet. He came to the United States with his family in 1805 and attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. After studying medicine and developing an interest in chemistry, Emmet accepted a faculty position at the University of Virginia as chair of the School of Natural History. He appeared to thrive in Charlottesville, even in the midst of student unrest that forced a pair of colleagues to resign, and purchased land on which he built a house, Morea, of his own design. There he planted gardens and experimented with silkworm cultivation. Emmet's health had always been frail, however, dating back to childhood bouts with smallpox, measles, and whooping cough. In 1842, ill health forced him to take a leave of absence from which he never returned. He died that year at the New York home of one of his brothers.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 16:14:00 EST]]>
/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST <![CDATA[Breckinridge, James (1763–1833)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 James Breckinridge was member of the House of Delegates (1789–1791, 1796–1802, 1806–1808, 1819–1821, 1823–1824), the U.S. House of Representatives (1809–1817), and the board of visitors of the University of Virginia (1819–1833). Born near what is now Fincastle in what was then southern Augusta County, Breckinridge came from a powerful family. (His brother John Breckinridge served in the U.S. Senate and as U.S. attorney general.) After serving during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783), Breckinridge studied law under George Wythe, then opened a practice in Fincastle and began his long political career. He served several terms in the House of Delegates before being elected to Congress as a Federalist in 1809. Although he opposed war with Britain in 1812 he led the militia as a brigadier general, helping to shore up defenses around Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. Breckinridge served four terms in the House of Representatives and then returned to the House of Delegates in 1819. That same year he was appointed to the board of visitors of the newly established University of Virginia, serving until his death. Breckinridge lived on a large farm, Grove Hill, in Botetourt County, but also speculated in land and had a diverse set of business interests. He died at Grove Hill in 1833.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST]]>
/Cabell_J_L_1813-1889 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:27:10 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, J. L. (1813–1889)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_J_L_1813-1889 J. L. Cabell was a medical educator and public health advocate. Likely born in Nelson County, he attended the University of Virginia and received his medical degree from the University of Maryland in Baltimore. In 1837, he became a professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Virginia, teaching for more than fifty years, until 1889. In 1859, Cabell published a treatise arguing that all people, even those of supposedly inferior races, descended from a single creation. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Cabell served as the surgeon in charge of the Confederate military hospitals in Charlottesville and Danville. After the war, he helped to found the Medical Society of Virginia and served as its president from 1876 to 1877. He was the first president of the Virginia State Board of Health, and in 1879 became president of the new National Board of Health. Cabell died in 1889.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:27:10 EST]]>
/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST <![CDATA[Jennings, Paul (1799–1874)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Paul Jennings is the author of A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison (1865), a memoir about his service as an enslaved footman in the White House. Born at the Madison plantation, Montpelier, Jennings lived in the president's house during James Madison's two terms as president and, in his narrative, recounts his role in rescuing Gilbert Stuart's 1796 portrait of George Washington before the arrival of British soldiers during the War of 1812. His version of these events gives Dolley Madison a less prominent role than most subsequent histories. Jennings served James Madison until the former president's death in 1836, after which Jennings lived at Dolley Madison's in Washington, D.C. For a time he worked in the White House again, for President James K. Polk. Madison sold Jennings in 1846, and six months later, Senator Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, purchased and freed Jennings, who then went to work for Webster. In 1848, Jennings was involved in the Pearl incident, a plot to smuggle seventy-seven slaves to freedom aboard the schooner Pearl. The plot was betrayed and the slaves captured, but the authorities never learned of Jennings's involvement. In January 1863, while working for the federal Department of the Interior, Jennings published his memoir in a magazine with the help of John Brooks Russell, a clerk in his office. The Reminiscences were privately published in book form in 1865. Jennings married three times and fathered five children. He died at his home in Washington, D.C., in 1874.
Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_4-5_1824 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:11:23 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (October 4–5, 1824)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_4-5_1824 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:11:23 EST]]> /Slavery_at_the_University_of_Virginia Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:55:46 EST <![CDATA[Slavery at the University of Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_at_the_University_of_Virginia The University of Virginia utilized the labor of enslaved African Americans from the earliest days of its construction, in 1817, until the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Most of the university's first enslaved laborers were rented from local landowners and worked alongside whites and free blacks in performing all the tasks associated with building what the school's founder, Thomas Jefferson, called the Academical Village. In March 1825, the first students arrived and African Americans transitioned to working in the pavilions, hotels, and the Rotunda; maintaining classrooms, laboratories, and the library; ringing the bell; and serving the daily needs of students and faculty. While faculty were allowed to bring personal slaves on Grounds, as the university campus was called, students were not—a reflection, perhaps, of Jefferson's view that slavery raised the young in habits of tyranny. Students nevertheless tended to treat the university's slaves poorly, at times even attacking them. The university's response to such behavior was inconsistent. Although the men who founded the university were ambivalent about slavery, over time students and faculty alike tended to take a harder line in favor of the institution. When the slaves were freed in 1865, the faculty was not, as a group, inclined to help them. The university hired many of its former slaves to work their previous jobs but never articulated a formal policy regarding the newly freed men and women.
Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:55:46 EST]]>
/Davis_Noah_1804-1867 Tue, 12 Jan 2016 11:47:08 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Noah (1804–1867)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Noah_1804-1867 Noah Davis was a Baptist minister and author of an emancipation narrative, A Narrative of the Life of Rev. Noah Davis, a Colored Man, published in 1859. Born into slavery in Madison County, Davis learned farming and carpentry and joined the Baptist church in Fredericksburg, which elected him a deacon. In 1847, white Baptists paid for Davis's freedom (he had already raised some of the money) and hired him as a missionary to African Americans in Baltimore. The next year he established the Second Colored Baptist Church in that city and over the next decade raised the money to free his family, who were in danger of being sold. His memoir was published in part to earn funds for that effort. In 1863, Davis attended the American Baptist Missionary Convention in Washington, D.C., and there met with President Abraham Lincoln, requesting he be allowed to preach to African American troops. In 1866, his church united with another, and Davis died the next year, in Baltimore.
Tue, 12 Jan 2016 11:47:08 EST]]>
/Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Underwood, John C. (1809–1873)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 John C. Underwood was one of the most conspicuous antislavery activists in Virginia during the 1850s, one of the first members of the Republican Party in Virginia, a federal judge from 1863 to 1873, and the president of the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. Born in New York, Underwood practiced law before moving to Virginia. There his condemnations of slavery were such that his wife, a cousin of the future Confederate general Thomas J. Jackson, worried for his safety. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), President Abraham Lincoln appointed Underwood a federal judge for the eastern district of Virginia. His actions on the bench often appeared to be politically motivated and included repeated efforts to confiscate the estates of Confederates in order to destroy slavery and apply what he called "retributive justice." After the war, he admitted that he could pack a jury, if necessary, to convict the former Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, of treason. He also publicly endorsed African American suffrage and full citizenship rights for freedpeople. Toward that end, he served as president of the constitutional convention that met in 1867–1868, during which he argued, unsuccessfully, that women, too, should be granted full suffrage rights. Underwood remained on the bench in his later years, earning a reputation as an outspoken radical and one who was often contemptuous of his critics. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1873.
Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST]]>
/Lee_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_1807-1873 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:30:05 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Mary Randolph Custis (1807–1873)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_1807-1873 Mary Randolph Custis Lee was an artist, author, and early antislavery activist. The great-granddaughter of Martha Washington, she enjoyed virtually unequalled social status throughout her life. Tutored in history and philosophy, she became acquainted with the early republic's leaders, who visited her father's estate, Arlington. Following her mother's lead, she fought slavery, and helped to ease the lives of her own family's slaves. Her uncle's death in 1830 prompted a religious awakening, and marriage the next year to Robert E. Lee put her in the position of being an army wife, a somewhat uncomfortable role for someone of her background. She followed her husband to his various outposts, sketching her travels and becoming an artist of some note. While her connection to Lee did not immediately augment her social standing, when he led the Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865), she was accorded further deference. Mary Custis Lee had not supported secession, but she was a devoted Confederate, her grace under pressure making her a symbol of quiet strength in wartime Richmond. At the end of her life, she was embittered by the Union occupation of her beloved Arlington and felt betrayed by her family's former slaves. She died in 1873.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:30:05 EST]]>
/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Daniels, Edward D. (1828–1916)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Edward D. Daniels was an agricultural reformer, newspaper editor, and an active member of the Republican Party. The Massachusetts-born Daniels worked as a geologist in Wisconsin, helped mount expeditions to establish abolitionist colonies in Kansas, served in the U.S. Army, and was involved in manufacturing in the Midwest before settling in Virginia in 1868, at his doctor's recommendation. That same year he bought Gunston Hall, the onetime home of George Mason, and tried to transform the plantation into a cooperative community of independent farmers and artisans. He hired African American laborers, instructed them in scientific farming techniques, and paid them relatively high wages. The venture was not profitable, however, and he sold the property in 1891, retaining a small piece of land for himself. Daniels extended his ambitions for reform into politics: he edited and published the Richmond Evening State Journal in support of the Republican Party, twice ran for office (and was twice defeated), and supported the nascent Readjusters. Daniels's financial troubles often thwarted his reform efforts, but a primary school for black children that he helped found survived into the 1920s. He died at his farm near Gunston Hall in 1916 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST]]>
/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:17:17 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Joseph R. (1813–1892)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Joseph R. Anderson was an iron manufacturer and Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1848 he purchased the Tredegar Iron Company, the largest producer of munitions, cannon, railroad iron, steam engines, and other ordnance for the Confederate government during the Civil War. One of Anderson's most notable decisions was to introduce slaves into skilled industrial work at the ironworks, and by 1864, more than half the workers at Tredegar were bondsmen. Anderson served as a brigadier general for the Confederate army, and fought and was wounded during the Seven Days' Battles. He resigned his commission in the Confederate Army in 1862 to resume control of the ironworks, and after the war, Anderson was a strong proponent for peace, hoping to keep the Union army from taking possession of the ironworks. He failed, but regained control of Tredegar after he was pardoned by U.S. president Andrew Johnson in 1865. By 1873 Anderson had doubled the factory's prewar capacity, and its labor force exceeded 1,000 men, many of them black laborers and skilled workmen who received equal pay with white workers. Though Tredegar failed to make the transition from iron to steel production late in the nineteenth century, the company survived into the 1980s. Anderson was a well-known member of the Richmond community, serving multiple terms on the Richmond City Council and in the House of Delegates before and after the war.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:17:17 EST]]>
/Religion_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:39:06 EST <![CDATA[Religion during the Civil War]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Religion_During_the_Civil_War As many as two-thirds of all Virginians attended a Protestant church before the American Civil War (1861–1865). These men and women witnessed intense conflict within their congregations and denominational councils before, during, and after the war. All Virginia churchgoers saw their congregations torn asunder at least once during the sectional conflict, whether in the process of dividing from Northern churches before the war, when they sent their sons to fight, or upon the secession of black members from biracial communities. On a more ideological level, even many Virginians who were not connected with a particular church interpreted the Civil War in religious terms. All Virginians who faced death in the field or on forced labor projects—or who experienced the deaths of loved ones—wondered why God permitted such extraordinary suffering. In addition, white Virginians found Union victory a disturbing challenge to their belief that God had favored both slavery and the Confederacy. Black Virginians, on the other hand, found Union victory a resounding affirmation that God had heard their prayers.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:39:06 EST]]>
/Mourning_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:23:53 EST <![CDATA[Mourning during the Civil War]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mourning_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:23:53 EST]]> /_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST <![CDATA["An ACT providing additional protection for the slave property of citizens of this commonwealth" (1856)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST]]> /General_Provisions_as_to_Slaves_1860 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:14:52 EST <![CDATA[General Provisions as to Slaves (1860)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Provisions_as_to_Slaves_1860 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:14:52 EST]]> /_Tales_of_Oppression_by_Isaac_T_Hopper_National_Anti-Slavery_Standard_March_25_1841 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:40:05 EST <![CDATA["Tales of Oppression" by Isaac T. Hopper, National Anti-Slavery Standard (March 25, 1841)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Tales_of_Oppression_by_Isaac_T_Hopper_National_Anti-Slavery_Standard_March_25_1841 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:40:05 EST]]> /Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Still_s_Underground_Rail_Road_Records_1886 Wed, 14 Oct 2015 15:49:07 EST <![CDATA[Arrivals from Virginia; an excerpt from Still's Underground Rail Road Records (1886)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Still_s_Underground_Rail_Road_Records_1886 Wed, 14 Oct 2015 15:49:07 EST]]> /Brooks_Lucy_Goode_1818-1900 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:51:51 EST <![CDATA[Brooks, Lucy Goode (1818–1900)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooks_Lucy_Goode_1818-1900 Lucy Goode Brooks played the primary role in establishing the Friends' Asylum for Colored Orphans, an orphanage for African American children in Richmond, after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born into slavery, she married Albert Royal Brooks, whose master allowed him to operate a livery stable and eating house. Although he eventually purchased his freedom and that of Lucy Brooks and several of their children, one daughter was sold by her owner to bondage in Tennessee. After Emancipation former slaves flocked to Richmond to look for missing family members. Having lost one of her own children to the slave trade, Lucy Brooks had a special concern for the plight of parentless children. She worked with the Ladies Sewing Circle for Charitable Work, a local Society of Friends meeting, and several black churches to create an orphanage. In March 1872 the General Assembly incorporated the Friends' Asylum for Colored Orphans, which remained in operation for almost sixty years. Brooks died in Richmond in 1900.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:51:51 EST]]>
/Chapter_II_an_excerpt_from_Twelve_Years_a_Slave_1855 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:45:39 EST <![CDATA[Chapter II; an excerpt from Twelve Years a Slave (1855)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_II_an_excerpt_from_Twelve_Years_a_Slave_1855 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:45:39 EST]]> /_Abolitionism_New_York_Spectator_September_26_1842 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:35:41 EST <![CDATA["Abolitionism," New York Spectator (September 26, 1842)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Abolitionism_New_York_Spectator_September_26_1842 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:35:41 EST]]> /_More_Fugitive_Slaves_New_York_Daily_Times_May_14_1852 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:34:16 EST <![CDATA["More Fugitive Slaves," New York Daily Times (May 14, 1852)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_More_Fugitive_Slaves_New_York_Daily_Times_May_14_1852 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:34:16 EST]]> /_Fugitive_Slaves_in_Ohio_New_York_Daily_Times_September_7_1853 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:32:35 EST <![CDATA["Fugitive Slaves in Ohio," New York Daily Times (September 7, 1853)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Fugitive_Slaves_in_Ohio_New_York_Daily_Times_September_7_1853 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:32:35 EST]]> /_The_Albany_Forwarding_Trade_BostonEmancipator_and_Free_American_May_20_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:27:25 EST <![CDATA["The Albany Forwarding Trade," Boston Emancipator and Free American (May 20, 1843)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Albany_Forwarding_Trade_BostonEmancipator_and_Free_American_May_20_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:27:25 EST]]> /_Miraculous_Escape_Boston_Emancipator_and_Free_American_May_11_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:24:43 EST <![CDATA["Miraculous Escape," Boston Emancipator and Free American (May 11, 1843)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miraculous_Escape_Boston_Emancipator_and_Free_American_May_11_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:24:43 EST]]> /The_Thomas_Hughes_Affair_an_excerpt_fromIsaac_T_Hopperby_L_Maria_Child_1854 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:35:01 EST <![CDATA[The Thomas Hughes Affair; an excerpt from Isaac T. Hopper by L. Maria Child (1854)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Thomas_Hughes_Affair_an_excerpt_fromIsaac_T_Hopperby_L_Maria_Child_1854 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:35:01 EST]]> /Chapter_VII_an_excerpt_from_the_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Henry_Box_Brown_1851 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:29:43 EST <![CDATA[Chapter VII; an excerpt from the Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown (1851)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_VII_an_excerpt_from_the_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Henry_Box_Brown_1851 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:29:43 EST]]> /Speech_by_William_B_Preston_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_16_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:09:34 EST <![CDATA[Speech by William B. Preston to the House of Delegates (January 16, 1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_William_B_Preston_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_16_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:09:34 EST]]> /Speech_by_William_H_Brodnax_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_19_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:05:58 EST <![CDATA[Speech by William H. Brodnax to the House of Delegates (January 19, 1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_William_H_Brodnax_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_19_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:05:58 EST]]> /Speech_by_James_H_Gholson_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_12_1832 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:33:39 EST <![CDATA[Speech by James H. Gholson to the House of Delegates (January 12, 1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_James_H_Gholson_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_12_1832 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:33:39 EST]]> /American_Civil_War_and_Virginia_The Fri, 26 Jun 2015 14:08:21 EST <![CDATA[Civil War in Virginia, The American]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/American_Civil_War_and_Virginia_The The American Civil War was fought from 1861 until 1865. It began after Virginia and ten other states in the southern United States seceded from the Union following the election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. president in 1860. Worried that Lincoln would interfere with slavery and citing states' rights as a justification, Southern leaders established the Confederate States of America with Jefferson Davis as its president and Richmond as its capital. After Confederates fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, the war moved to Virginia. Union forces made several failed attempts to capture Richmond, and Confederate general Robert E. Lee twice invaded the North, only to be defeated in battle. Most, but not all, Virginians supported the Confederacy. In 1863, Unionists in the western part of the state established West Virginia. On the home front, both white and African American families suffered food shortages or were forced to flee their homes. The Confederate government instituted a draft, or conscription law, and in some cases impressed, or confiscated, private property. By the time Lee surrendered in 1865, much of the state had been ravaged by war. But the end of fighting also meant emancipation, or freedom, for enslaved African Americans. In the years that followed, many white Virginians saw their fight for independence as the Lost Cause, while black Virginians struggled to overcome institutionalized white supremacy and earn full citizenship rights.
Fri, 26 Jun 2015 14:08:21 EST]]>
/States_Rights Wed, 24 Jun 2015 15:13:41 EST <![CDATA[States' Rights]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/States_Rights States' rights is a political philosophy that emphasizes the rights of individual states to fight what proponents believe to be the encroaching power of the United States government. Although the discourse around states' rights dates from the American Revolution (1775–1783) and the writings of Thomas Jefferson, it became critically important first during the Nullification Crisis (1828–1832), when South Carolina attempted to overrule a federally imposed tariff, and then during the Secession Crisis (1860–1861), when South Carolina and a number of other Southern states, including Virginia, seceded from the Union rather than accept the election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. president. In theory, states' rights generally favors state and local control over federal control. During the 1850s, however, it was a malleable political philosophy that both Northerners and Southerners employed to advance their sectional interests. Deep South politicians acquiesced to federal power when it protected slavery but cited states' rights when questioning federal attempts at regulating the spread of slavery into new territories. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the philosophy served both as a pillar of Confederate propaganda and, at times, as a drag on Confederate unity. Ironically, Confederate president Jefferson Davis had little trouble expanding the central government in order to prosecute the war.
Wed, 24 Jun 2015 15:13:41 EST]]>
/Speech_by_Samuel_McDowell_Moore_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_11_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Speech by Samuel McDowell Moore to the House of Delegates (January 11, 1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_Samuel_McDowell_Moore_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_11_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:01:45 EST]]> /Petition_from_Women_of_Fluvanna_County_November_24_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:59:52 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Women of Fluvanna County (November 24, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Women_of_Fluvanna_County_November_24_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:59:52 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Hanover_County_December_11_and_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:58:11 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Hanover County (December 11 and 14, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Hanover_County_December_11_and_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:58:11 EST]]> /Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Fauquier_County_December_7_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:56:46 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Inhabitants of Fauquier County (December 7, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Fauquier_County_December_7_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:56:46 EST]]> /Loudoun_County_Anti-Slave_Resolution_December_30_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:54:40 EST <![CDATA[Loudoun County Anti-Slave Resolution (December 30, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loudoun_County_Anti-Slave_Resolution_December_30_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:54:40 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Culpeper_County_December_9_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:52:51 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Culpeper County (December 9, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Culpeper_County_December_9_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:52:51 EST]]> /Excerpts_from_Governor_John_Floyd_s_Message_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:48:29 EST <![CDATA[Excerpts from Governor John Floyd's Message to the General Assembly (December 6, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpts_from_Governor_John_Floyd_s_Message_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:48:29 EST]]> /Petition_from_the_Society_of_Friends_Charles_City_County_December_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:45:52 EST <![CDATA[Petition from the Society of Friends, Charles City County (December 14, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_the_Society_of_Friends_Charles_City_County_December_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:45:52 EST]]> /Petition_from_Women_of_Augusta_County_January_19_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:44:09 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Women of Augusta County (January 19, 1832)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Women_of_Augusta_County_January_19_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:44:09 EST]]> /Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Washington_County_December_17_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:41:50 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Inhabitants of Washington County (December 17, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Washington_County_December_17_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:41:50 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Northampton_County_December_6_1831 Tue, 09 Jun 2015 14:18:43 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Northampton County (December 6, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Northampton_County_December_6_1831 Tue, 09 Jun 2015 14:18:43 EST]]> /Dew_Thomas_R_1802-1846 Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:41:45 EST <![CDATA[Dew, Thomas R. (1802–1846)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dew_Thomas_R_1802-1846 Thomas R. Dew spent a decade as president of the College of William and Mary (1836–1846), but is also known for his works supporting slavery and opposing protective tariffs. While a professor of political law at William and Mary, Dew achieved national prominence when he attacked the tariff of 1828. He backed free trade, believing export taxes hindered southern planters at the expense of northern manufacturers. He favored state banks over a national bank, fearing that the latter would provide the government with too much power over the economy. His commentary on Virginia's debate to end slavery in 1831–1832 showed him an ardent supporter of the institution, even opposing gradual emancipation because it would deprive the state of its wealth. Dew also argued that denying suffrage to women was appropriate because devotion to family hindered their capacity to understand politics. William and Mary's board named him its president in 1836. During his administration the college became an important wellspring of southern thought as sectional tension heightened. Dew died of bronchitis in 1846.
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:41:45 EST]]>
/Chambers_Edward_R_1795-1872 Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:37:57 EST <![CDATA[Chambers, Edward R. (1795–1872)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chambers_Edward_R_1795-1872 Edward R. Chambers served in the Convention of 1850–1851 and parts of the Convention of 1861. Chambers settled in Mecklenburg County, where he established his law practice. He won election to the Convention of 1850–1851, which created a new constitution that established universal white-male suffrage and provided for a popularly elected governor. During the proceedings he called for a committee to look into the removal of all free people of color from Virginia. This ultimately led to Article IV, Section 19 of the constitution, which continued an 1806 law mandating that freed slaves leave the state within twelve months. In 1861 Mecklenburg County voters elected him to fill an unexpired term in the convention that had already passed the Ordinance of Secession leading to the American Civil War (1861–1865), which he signed. Chambers received his postwar pardon in July 1865. Two months later Governor Francis H. Pierpont appointed him a circuit court judge, but he was removed in 1869 in compliance with a congressional resolution ordering the replacement of Virginia's civil officeholders who had supported the Confederacy. He returned to the practice of law, became a commonwealth attorney, and died in his home at Boydton.
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:37:57 EST]]>
/Monticello Fri, 03 Oct 2014 15:06:46 EST <![CDATA[Monticello]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Monticello On land inherited from his father, Peter Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson established himself as a member of the Virginia planter elite at Monticello, his plantation in Albemarle County. Construction on the house began in 1769 and continued at intervals until 1809. It is a testament to Jefferson's interest in classical architecture and the importance of education in the Early Republic, and a statement about his position in society. The plantation began as a tobacco farm and shifted to wheat and grain cultivation in the 1790s, a decade that saw many changes to the landscape and the built environment of the approximately 105 enslaved people living there. Monticello ceased activity as a working plantation after Jefferson's death in 1826, passed through multiple owners, and was purchased by what is now the Thomas Jefferson Foundation in 1923. Open to the public today, Monticello is both a typical example of a piedmont Virginia plantation in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and an idiosyncratic architectural essay by a man deeply influenced by the architecture of ancient Rome, Renaissance Italy, and contemporary France. The home has become an American icon, appearing on the reverse of the Jefferson nickel from 1938 to 2003 and from 2006 to the present, and hosting an annual Independence Day celebration and naturalization ceremony since 1963.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 15:06:46 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Coolidge_April_12_1825 Tue, 16 Sep 2014 13:27:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Coolidge (April 12, 1825)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Coolidge_April_12_1825 Tue, 16 Sep 2014 13:27:44 EST]]> /Conway_Moncure_Daniel_1832-1907 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:02:36 EST <![CDATA[Conway, Moncure Daniel (1832–1907)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conway_Moncure_Daniel_1832-1907 Moncure Conway was a Methodist minister, Unitarian minister, abolitionist, free thinker, and prolific writer who the historian John d'Entremont describes as "the most thoroughgoing white male radical produced by the antebellum South." Born into a prominent Virginia slaveholding family, he nevertheless became an outspoken critic of the South's "peculiar institution," anguishing over how to reconcile his background with his antislavery convictions in his younger years. He first openly allied himself with abolitionists in July 1854 in the wake of the capture in Boston, Massachusetts, of fugitive slave Anthony Burns, whom Conway claimed to have known in Virginia. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Conway accompanied thirty-one of his father's slaves, all of whom had escaped to Washington, D.C., on a harrowing train ride to freedom in southwestern Ohio. There he established what came to be known as the Conway Colony; many African Americans continue to live in the area and identify their ancestors as Virginia slaves. In addition, Conway traveled in high literary circles, authoring as many seventy published works, including popular book-length arguments against slavery and important biographies of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Thomas Paine.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:02:36 EST]]>
/Blake_or_the_Huts_of_America_1859-1861 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:40:03 EST <![CDATA[Blake; or the Huts of America (1859–1861)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blake_or_the_Huts_of_America_1859-1861 Blake; or the Huts of America is a novel by Martin R. Delany that was serially published in the Anglo-African Magazine in 1859 and the Weekly Anglo-African in 1861 and 1862 (it was not published in complete book form until 1970). Delany was born free in 1812 in Charles Town, Virginia (later West Virginia). Giving a panoramic view of slave life in the nineteenth century, Delany's novel tells the story of Henry Blake, an escaped slave who travels throughout the southern United States and to Cuba in an effort to plan a large-scale slave insurrection. Written in part as a response to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), Blake's strong, militant, and revolutionary protagonist offers a counterexample to the seemingly docile Uncle Tom character popularized by Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). Because the final installments of the novel have been lost, twenty-first-century readers may never know if Blake's planned revolution is successful; still, the novel offers an important nineteenth-century depiction of slavery and a potential way to end it.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:40:03 EST]]>
/Aulick_John_H_ca_1791-1873 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:11:49 EST <![CDATA[Aulick, John H. (ca. 1791–1873)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aulick_John_H_ca_1791-1873 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:11:49 EST]]> /Fay_Lydia_Mary_ca_1804-1878 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:09:23 EST <![CDATA[Fay, Lydia Mary (ca. 1804–1878)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fay_Lydia_Mary_ca_1804-1878 Lydia Mary Fay was an educator who supervised an Episcopal mission school in Shanghai almost continuously from 1851 until her death in 1878. Between 1839 and 1850, when she volunteered to go to China, Fay worked as a governess and educator in Virginia and New York. Her mission work was inspired by Bishop William Meade and Rector Charles Backus Dana of Alexandria's Christ Episcopal Church, which she attended while living in Fairfax County. Fay became so proficient in Chinese that she supervised the translation of texts into English and taught composition courses in both languages. The year after Fay's death, the school merged with another Episcopal boarding school in Shanghai to form Saint John's College.
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:09:23 EST]]>
/Fugitive_Slave_Laws Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Fugitive Slave Laws]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fugitive_Slave_Laws Fugitive slave laws provided slaveowners and their agents with the legal right to reclaim runaways from other jurisdictions. Those states or jurisdictions were required to deliver the fugitives. As early as 1643, the United Colonies of New England had required the return of runaways, and, after the American Revolution (1775–1783), the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 contained similar protections for slaveowners. The U.S. Constitution included a Fugitive Slave Clause, which was agreed to without dissent at the Constitutional Convention. Following a dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which clarified the processes by which slaveowners could claim their property and was designed to balance the competing interests of free and slave states. In 1823, the law was upheld by Massachusetts in a case regarding a Virginia runaway, and then upheld again by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 expanded the number of federal officials empowered to act in fugitive-slave cases, but by this time, public opinion, at least in antislavery hotbeds such as Boston, Massachusetts, had turned against such laws. Thus a captured Virginia slave named Shadrach Minkins was rescued in 1851 and spirited north to Canada, but in 1854, authorities foiled an attempted rescue of the Virginia runaway slave Anthony Burns. Compromise soon became impossible, and enforcement of the law effectively ended with the onset of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:09:49 EST]]>
/Poe_Edgar_Allan_1809-1849 Tue, 01 Jul 2014 17:03:49 EST <![CDATA[Poe, Edgar Allan (1809–1849)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poe_Edgar_Allan_1809-1849 Edgar Allan Poe was a poet, short story writer, editor, and critic. Credited by many scholars as the inventor of the detective genre in fiction, he was a master at using elements of mystery, psychological terror, and the macabre in his writing. His most famous poem, "The Raven" (1845), combines his penchant for suspense with some of the most famous lines in American poetry. While editor of the Richmond-based Southern Literary Messenger, Poe carved out a philosophy of poetry that emphasized brevity and beauty for its own sake. Stories, he wrote, should be crafted to convey a single, unified impression, and for Poe, that impression was most often dread. "The Tell-Tale Heart" (1843), for instance, memorably describes the paranoia of its narrator, who is guilty of murder. After leaving Richmond, Poe lived and worked in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and New York, seeming to collect literary enemies wherever he went. Incensed by his especially sharp, often sarcastic style of criticism, they were not inclined to help Poe as his life unraveled because of sickness and poverty. After Poe's death at the age of forty, a former colleague, Rufus W. Griswold, wrote a scathing biography that contributed, in the years to come, to a literary caricature. Poe's poetry and prose, however, have endured.
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 17:03:49 EST]]>
/Cooke_Philip_Pendleton_1816-1850 Tue, 01 Jul 2014 16:59:24 EST <![CDATA[Cooke, Philip Pendleton (1816–1850)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooke_Philip_Pendleton_1816-1850 Philip Pendleton Cooke was a poet whose work emphasized lost love, the natural world, and exoticism, placing him firmly within the romantic literary movement. Cooke practiced law in western Virginia but struggled to make a living at writing. His association with Edgar Allan Poe led to the publication of his most famous work, the poem "Florence Vane" (1840), which continues to be anthologized as an example of romantic poetry.
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 16:59:24 EST]]>
/Daniel_Webster_Recommends_Paul_Jennings_June_23_1851 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 09:05:33 EST <![CDATA[Daniel Webster Recommends Paul Jennings (June 23, 1851)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Webster_Recommends_Paul_Jennings_June_23_1851 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 09:05:33 EST]]> /Davis_Jefferson_1808-1889 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 04:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Jefferson (1808–1889)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Jefferson_1808-1889 Jefferson Davis was a celebrated veteran of the Mexican War (1846–1848), a U.S. senator from Mississippi (1847–1851; 1857–1861), secretary of war under U.S. president Franklin Pierce (1853–1857), and the only president of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Tall, lean, and formal, Davis was considered to be an ideal leader of the Confederacy upon his election in 1861, despite the fact that he neither sought the job nor particularly wanted it. Davis was a war hero, slaveholder, and longtime advocate of states' rights who nevertheless was not viewed to be a radical "fire-eater," making him more appealing to the hesitating moderates in Virginia. Still, Davis's reputation suffered over the years. Searing headaches, caused in part by facial neuralgia, exacerbated an already prickly personality. "I have an infirmity of which I am heartily ashamed," he said. "When I am aroused in a matter, I lose control of my feelings and become personal." The challenges inherent in holding together a wartime government founded on the idea of states' rights didn't help, either, nor did critics like E. A. Pollard, editor of the Richmond Examiner, who charged after the war that the Lost Cause was "lost by the perfidy of Jefferson Davis." Robert E. Lee, however, spoke for many when he said, "You can always say that few people could have done better than Mr. Davis. I knew of none that could have done as well."
Wed, 04 Jun 2014 04:23:46 EST]]>
/Floyd_John_B_1806-1863 Tue, 27 May 2014 09:19:47 EST <![CDATA[Floyd, John B. (1806–1863)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Floyd_John_B_1806-1863 John B. Floyd was governor of Virginia (1849–1852), secretary of war in the administration of United States president James Buchanan (1857–1860), and a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865). As governor, he helped usher in the apportionment and suffrage reforms proposed by the constitutional convention of 1850–1851, but at Buchanan's War Department his reputation plunged because of various corruption scandals. His good name would never recover. At Fort Donelson, Tennessee, in February 1862, he held off the forces of Union brigadier general Ulysses S. Grant for two days. Rather than personally surrender, however, he and his Virginia soldiers fled by steamboat in the middle of the night, leaving the duty to his third in command. Floyd was relieved of his command a month later.
Tue, 27 May 2014 09:19:47 EST]]>
/Virginia_Chapter_CIX_of_the_Code_of_1849 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:36:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIX of the Code of Virginia (1849)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIX_of_the_Code_of_1849 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:36:48 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIII of the Code of Virginia (1860)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST]]> /Wise_Henry_A_1806-1876 Mon, 24 Mar 2014 10:15:25 EST <![CDATA[Wise, Henry A. (1806–1876)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wise_Henry_A_1806-1876 Henry A. Wise was a lawyer, a member of the United States House of Representatives (1832–1844), U.S. minister to Brazil (1844–1847), governor of Virginia (1856–1860) during John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, and a brigadier general in the Confederate army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born in Accomack County on Virginia's Eastern Shore, Wise rose to national prominence during the political turmoil of the late antebellum period. A fiery politician and gifted orator with a mercurial temperament, he advocated a number of progressive positions, including capital improvements in western Virginia, broadening Virginia's electoral base through constitutional reform, and public funding for universal elementary education. Wise also was a stout defender of slavery and eventually became an ardent secessionist. Perhaps best known for being governor when Brown attempted to spark a slave rebellion at Harpers Ferry, Wise had the authority to commute Brown's death sentence. Instead, he allowed the execution to take place, making possible the radical abolitionist's ascension to martyrdom. After Virginia's secession in 1861, Wise served in the Confederate army. In 1872, he supported U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant, the former Union general-in-chief, in his campaign for reelection.
Mon, 24 Mar 2014 10:15:25 EST]]>
/Letcher_John_1813-1884 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:52:05 EST <![CDATA[Letcher, John (1813–1884)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letcher_John_1813-1884 John Letcher was a lawyer, newspaper editor, member of the United States House of Representatives (1851–1859), and governor of Virginia (1860–1864) during the American Civil War (1861–1865). In a career that lasted decades, he weathered radical shifts of opinion and power by consistently positioning himself as a moderate, supporting, for instance, increased commercial ties between the eastern and western portions of the state and more political representation for western counties, codified in the Convention of 1850–1851. He advocated for a gradual emancipation of slaves and resisted the entreaties of radical secessionists while still arguing on behalf of states' rights. Western support and a divided Whig Party helped him narrowly win the governorship as a Democrat in 1859, but his term was often a difficult one. He ably mobilized Virginia for war and then threw the state's tremendous resources behind the Confederacy. But his willingness to requisition for the Confederacy needed supplies such as salt caused controversy at home, as did his support of impressments. Letcher returned to Lexington in 1864, ran for the Confederate Congress and lost, and was briefly imprisoned at the conclusion of the war. After his release, he resumed his law career, returning to state politics before dying in 1884.
Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:52:05 EST]]>
/Minkins_Shadrach_d_1875 Mon, 03 Mar 2014 17:59:59 EST <![CDATA[Minkins, Shadrach (d. 1875)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Minkins_Shadrach_d_1875 Shadrach Minkins was an enslaved man who escaped from his owner in Norfolk in 1850, was arrested as a fugitive the following year in Boston, Massachusetts, and was rescued there by antislavery activists. Born into slavery, Minkins had various owners before being sold to John DeBree, a career naval officer, in 1849. He worked as a house servant for DeBree until making his escape in May 1850. Originally called Sherwood and then Shadrach, Minkins adopted the name Frederick in Boston, where he waited tables at an upscale restaurant. After passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, DeBree sent a slave catcher to Boston, and Minkins was arrested on February 15, 1851. Hundreds of antislavery activists gathered outside the courtroom where Minkins was being held, and a group of about twenty black men eventually broke through the doors and rescued Minkins, spiriting him through the streets of Boston and arranging for his journey to Canada. Minkins's escape became a national cause célèbre, with abolitionists rejoicing and the administration of President Millard Fillmore fuming. After arriving in Montreal, Minkins reverted to the name Shadrach and adopted the last name Minkins. He married an Irish woman, had four children, and ran a barbershop until his death in 1875.
Mon, 03 Mar 2014 17:59:59 EST]]>
/Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, George (1775–1861)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_George_1775-1861 George Tucker was a lawyer, philosopher, economist, historian, novelist, politician, and teacher. Born in Bermuda and cousin to the famed jurist St. George Tucker, Tucker served in the House of Delegates (1815–1816) representing Pittsylvania County and won election to three terms in the United States House of Representatives (1819–1825) before, at the invitation of Thomas Jefferson, joining the faculty of the newly opened University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Tucker owned slaves but opposed slavery as a moral evil. During debate over the Missouri Compromise (1820), he argued that emancipation was impractical and that slavery would eventually die out. By the end of his life, his opposition to abolitionists had turned him into an apologist for the "peculiar institution." He was the author of a novel of the U.S. South that dramatized the evils of slavery, The Valley of Shenandoah (1824); two science fiction novels, including A Voyage to the Moon (1827); a biography of Jefferson (1837); a four-volume history of the United States (1856–1857); and numerous essays on aesthetics, metaphysics, causality, morality, economics, slavery, and the nature of progress. Tucker was married three times, including to relatives of William Byrd II and George Washington. He died in 1861 from injuries he sustained after being hit by a falling cotton bale.
Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST]]>
/Ruffin_Edmund_1794-1865 Sat, 04 Jan 2014 17:08:40 EST <![CDATA[Ruffin, Edmund (1794–1865)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffin_Edmund_1794-1865 Edmund Ruffin was a prominent Southern nationalist, noted agriculturalist, writer and essayist, and Virginia state senator (1823–1827). After dropping out of college and serving briefly in the Virginia militia during the War of 1812, Ruffin began a long career farming along the James River and studying the soil. He published the results of his experiments and founded a journal, the Farmers' Register, in 1833. During these years, Ruffin's politics also became radicalized, first around banking issues, and then around states' rights, slavery, and secession. After John Brown's failed raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859, Ruffin began speaking out against what he considered to be Northern aggression, and he even joined cadets from the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington so he could attend Brown's execution. Ruffin continued to agitate for secession during the United States presidential election of 1860, and he is erroneously credited with firing the first shot on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, starting the American Civil War (1861–1865). A popular hero in the South, Ruffin nevertheless suffered financial setbacks during the war, as well as declining health, and in 1865, following the Confederates' defeat, he killed himself.
Sat, 04 Jan 2014 17:08:40 EST]]>
/Scott_Winfield_1786-1866 Thu, 02 Jan 2014 13:28:00 EST <![CDATA[Scott, Winfield (1786–1866)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Scott_Winfield_1786-1866 Winfield Scott was a hero of the Mexican War (1846–1848), the last Whig Party candidate for U.S. president, and commanding general of the United States Army at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" for his equal love of discipline and pomp, Scott by 1861 had served in the military for more than fifty years and under fourteen U.S. presidents. He had been severely wounded in battle, avoided several wars with his diplomatic skills, and commanded the army that conquered Mexico City in 1847, all of which made him the most admired and famous soldier in America. Less well known is the fact that Scott was convicted by court-martial for conduct unbecoming an officer, was investigated by a court of inquiry, once was accused of treason, and several times offered his resignation from the army. When the Civil War began, the Dinwiddie County native remained loyal to the Union, and while age had so reduced his once-towering frame that he could no longer even mount a horse, his ego and intellect were still intact. Scott's Anaconda Plan for winning the war proved to be prescient but politically out of step, and he eventually lost control of the army to George B. McClellan. He soon retired, published a two-volume memoir in 1864, and died in 1866.
Thu, 02 Jan 2014 13:28:00 EST]]>
/_The_most_promising_work_an_excerpt_from_Exhibition_of_the_Royal_Academy_June_1_1861 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:07:21 EST <![CDATA["The most promising work"; an excerpt from "Exhibition of the Royal Academy" (June 1, 1861)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_most_promising_work_an_excerpt_from_Exhibition_of_the_Royal_Academy_June_1_1861 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:07:21 EST]]> /Bryan_Daniel_ca_1789-1866 Wed, 02 Oct 2013 17:12:45 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Daniel (ca. 1789–1866)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Daniel_ca_1789-1866 Daniel Bryan was a poet, a lawyer, and a member of the Senate of Virginia (1818–1820) representing Rockingham and Shenandoah counties. Publishing his works in periodicals and short books, he wrote in a neoclassical style that was fashionable at the beginning of his literary career but that had fallen out of favor by the end of his life. He corresponded with several important figures of his day, including Edgar Allan Poe, who praised Bryan's verse. Bryan is now remembered chiefly for his epic about Daniel Boone, a minor poem that provides a wealth of information about American ideals and aspirations early in the nineteenth century. As a Virginia senator, Bryan opposed slavery and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was a staunch Unionist. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1866.
Wed, 02 Oct 2013 17:12:45 EST]]>
/Butt_Martha_Haines_1833-1871 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 17:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Butt, Martha Haines (1833–1871)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butt_Martha_Haines_1833-1871 Martha Haines Butt was a novelist, poet, and essayist who in 1853 became one of five southern women to respond to Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) with a novel of her own. Antifanaticism: A Tale of the South (1853) defended slavery as moral and Christian, but it never achieved the critical or popular success that Stowe or even the other rebuttals received. A Norfolk native, Butt continued to write, contributing to both regional and national magazines. She championed women's intellectual engagement but criticized efforts on behalf of women's rights, generally affirming the traditional role of women. Late in her life, however, she became involved in the woman suffrage movement and served as vice president of the Virginia State Woman Suffrage Association in 1870. Butt died of pneumonia a year later.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 17:22:49 EST]]>
/Carter_William_Richard_1833-1864 Mon, 19 Aug 2013 10:41:23 EST <![CDATA[Carter, William Richard (1833–1864)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_William_Richard_1833-1864 William R. Carter was a Confederate cavalry officer and diarist, whose observations of his experiences riding with J. E. B. Stuart during the American Civil War (1861–1865) became a boon to researchers after the war and finally were published in part in 1998. A graduate of Hampden-Sydney College, Carter taught briefly in Lunenburg County before moving to Mississippi, where he purchased a school. He returned to Virginia in 1860, earned his law degree, and then, after Virginia's secession, joined the Confederate cavalry. Briefly captured in 1861, he fought with Stuart through nearly all the major campaigns, including at Brandy Station and Gettysburg in 1863, and, in 1864, Yellow Tavern, where Stuart was killed. Carter himself died from wounds he received in June 1864 at the Battle of Trevilian Station and was buried in Nottoway County. Always a good writer, his field diaries became important source material for historians, especially those studying the Confederate cavalry. A partial transcription of the diaries was published in 1998; the complete two-volume transcription is preserved at Hampden-Sydney College.
Mon, 19 Aug 2013 10:41:23 EST]]>
/Carter_Robert_Randolph_1825-1888 Mon, 19 Aug 2013 10:12:32 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Robert Randolph (1825–1888)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Robert_Randolph_1825-1888 Robert Randolph Carter was a naval officer who is perhaps best known for his diary of an eighteen-month voyage to the Arctic seas in 1850–1851. The expedition's goal was to rescue a missing Briton, Sir John Franklin, who had sailed in search of the Northwest Passage; Franklin was never found. After serving in the U.S. Navy's Pacific Squadron during the Mexican War (1846–1848), Carter joined the Confederate States Navy at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865). He spent the first part of the war on the James River and the latter part in England, aiding Confederate agent James D. Bulloch (an uncle to future U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt) in equipping ships. Following the war, he worked as a prosperous farmer, dying in 1888 from injuries sustained in an accident.
Mon, 19 Aug 2013 10:12:32 EST]]>
/Blackford_W_W_1831-1905 Mon, 12 Aug 2013 14:57:06 EST <![CDATA[Blackford, W. W. (1831–1905)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackford_W_W_1831-1905 W. W. Blackford was a Confederate army officer and civil engineer. A native of Fredericksburg who studied engineering at the University of Virginia, Blackford worked as acting chief engineer for the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad. At the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he joined the 1st Virginia Cavalry and became an aide-de-camp for its commander, J. E. B. Stuart. He fought with the Confederate cavalry from the Seven Days' Battles in June 1862 until the end of the war, suffering two wounds and being promoted to lieutenant colonel. After the war, Blackford worked for a railroad in Lynchburg, owned and operated a sugar plantation in Louisiana, and was a college professor in Blacksburg. He worked for the railroads again before retiring in 1890. His Civil War letters have been used by historians, and his memoir of the war was published in 1946 with an introduction by Douglas Southall Freeman. Blackford died in Princess Anne County in 1905.
Mon, 12 Aug 2013 14:57:06 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Eugene_Davis_to_Thomas_H_Key_November_1850 Tue, 06 Aug 2013 09:35:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Eugene Davis to Thomas H. Key (November 1850)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Eugene_Davis_to_Thomas_H_Key_November_1850 Tue, 06 Aug 2013 09:35:44 EST]]> /The_Life_and_Sufferings_of_Leonard_Black_a_Fugitive_from_Slavery_Written_by_Himself_1847 Fri, 12 Jul 2013 09:03:58 EST <![CDATA[The Life and Sufferings of Leonard Black, a Fugitive from Slavery. Written by Himself (1847)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Life_and_Sufferings_of_Leonard_Black_a_Fugitive_from_Slavery_Written_by_Himself_1847 Fri, 12 Jul 2013 09:03:58 EST]]> /Bagby_George_William_1828-1883 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:44:51 EST <![CDATA[Bagby, George William (1828–1883)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bagby_George_William_1828-1883 George William Bagby was a licensed physician, editor, journalist, essayist, and humorist. He is best remembered as the editor who, on the advent of the American Civil War (1861–1865), turned the Southern Literary Messenger from a respected literary journal into a propagandistic tool that endorsed secession and the Confederate cause. After the war, Bagby attempted but failed to make a living as a humorist. As assistant to the secretary of the commonwealth—which, by law, also made him state librarian—Bagby wrote his most well-regarded essay, "The Old Virginia Gentleman" (1877). Many of his essays reflect his personal conflicts with Virginia and the South: at times he is objective, even critical; at others he is sentimental and celebrates the "old days" of a better (pre-Civil War) Virginia.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:44:51 EST]]>
/Blake_or_The_Huts_of_America_1859 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 15:43:05 EST <![CDATA["Blake; or, The Huts of America" (1859)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blake_or_The_Huts_of_America_1859 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 15:43:05 EST]]> /_Life_of_Isaac_Jefferson_of_Petersburg_Virginia_Blacksmith_by_Isaac_Jefferson_1847 Fri, 03 May 2013 09:49:59 EST <![CDATA["Life of Isaac Jefferson of Petersburg, Virginia, Blacksmith" by Isaac Jefferson (1847)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Life_of_Isaac_Jefferson_of_Petersburg_Virginia_Blacksmith_by_Isaac_Jefferson_1847 Fri, 03 May 2013 09:49:59 EST]]> /Cooke_Philip_St_George_1809-1895 Fri, 19 Apr 2013 14:53:47 EST <![CDATA[Cooke, Philip St. George (1809–1895)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooke_Philip_St_George_1809-1895 Philip St. George Cooke was a Virginia-born Union general during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A West Point graduate and a lawyer, Cooke served on frontier duty and fought in both the Black Hawk War (1832) and the Mexican War (1846–1848). In addition, he helped to protect settlers on the Oregon Trail, fought Apache in New Mexico Territory, helped subdue Sioux in Nebraska Territory, helped restore order in Bloody Kansas, and led an expedition against Mormons in the Utah Territory. When the Civil War began, Cooke was one of the Regular Army's top cavalrymen and he chose to stay with the Union, writing, "I owe Virginia little; my country much." It was a decision that caused a long estrangement from his son, John Rogers Cooke (1833–1891), and a rift with his son-in-law, the future Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart. During the war, he led a controversial cavalry charge at Gaines's Mill (1862) and eventually left the Army of the Potomac, claiming its commanders were inept. Following the war, his involvement in a massacre by Lakota Sioux further tarnished his reputation. He wrote two memoirs and a cavalry manual and in the 1880s reconciled with his son. Cooke died in Detroit, Michigan, in 1895.
Fri, 19 Apr 2013 14:53:47 EST]]>
/_Sketches_in_the_Free_and_Slave_States_of_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_September_27_1856 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:44:45 EST <![CDATA["Sketches in the Free and Slave States of America" by Eyre Crowe (September 27, 1856)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Sketches_in_the_Free_and_Slave_States_of_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_September_27_1856 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:44:45 EST]]> /Known_World_The_2003 Tue, 15 Jan 2013 16:10:28 EST <![CDATA[Known World, The (2003)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Known_World_The_2003 The Known World (2003) is a novel by Edward P. Jones that centers on Henry Townsend, a free black slaveholder living in antebellum Virginia. Winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award for fiction in 2003 and the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 2004, the novel was lavishly praised by critics, with Kirkus Reviews calling it "a harrowing tale that scarcely ever raises its voice." The New York Times noted how racial lines in the book "are intriguingly tangled and not easily drawn." In addition, The Known World has been compared favorably with classic American novels about slavery such as Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! (1936), and Toni Morrison's Beloved (1987). Jones's book is distinctive, however, for its focus on the historical reality of black slaveholders before the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although the author, who received a master of fine arts degree in creative writing from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in 1981, has downplayed the role of his research, the reality of Henry Townsend adheres to the historical record. According to scholarship done in the 1920s by Carter G. Woodson, 12 percent of all free black heads of families in Virginia in 1830 owned slaves.
Tue, 15 Jan 2013 16:10:28 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_to_Joseph_Coolidge_October_24_1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:49:05 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Joseph Coolidge (October 24, 1858)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_to_Joseph_Coolidge_October_24_1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:49:05 EST]]> /Will_and_Codicil_of_Thomas_Jefferson_1826 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:41:37 EST <![CDATA[Will and Codicil of Thomas Jefferson (1826)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Will_and_Codicil_of_Thomas_Jefferson_1826 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:41:37 EST]]> /Lewis_Miller_s_Virginia_Slavery_Drawings Thu, 15 Nov 2012 17:29:17 EST <![CDATA[Lewis Miller's Virginia Slavery Drawings]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Miller_s_Virginia_Slavery_Drawings Many of Lewis Miller's watercolor sketches depict enslaved people in Virginia. Historians have drawn heavily on these to inform their interpretations of bondage as practiced in the state during the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Miller, who lived from 1796 until 1882, was a Pennsylvania native who worked as a carpenter and often visited his brother in Virginia. His watercolors and the texts that accompany them are rare, because few artists of his time bothered to depict or write about slaves. His pictures are also valued for their relative emotional detachment and credibility, for Miller fancied himself a recorder, not an agitator, activist, or commentator. He avoided shading his subjects with personal opinion in lieu of drawing and writing what he saw and heard. Yet no reportage is strictly neutral, and he was not immune to wishful thinking, stereotyping, and sentimentalizing. For these reasons, his pictures and texts are best understood within the context of his time, biography, personality, and artistic style. While it is usually impossible to say whether specific subjects were enslaved or free people, the specific contexts of Miller's sketches, combined with what historians know about Virginia's population and its large-scale agrarian economy in the antebellum period (1820–1860), suggest that most of the African American people depicted by Miller were, in fact, enslaved.
Thu, 15 Nov 2012 17:29:17 EST]]>
/Will_of_Martha_Jefferson_Randolph_April_18_1834 Thu, 08 Nov 2012 14:40:11 EST <![CDATA[Will of Martha Jefferson Randolph (April 18, 1834)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Will_of_Martha_Jefferson_Randolph_April_18_1834 Thu, 08 Nov 2012 14:40:11 EST]]> /_To_the_New_York_Committee_for_the_Celebration_of_the_Birthday_of_Washington_by_Daniel_Webster_February_20_1851 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 09:21:25 EST <![CDATA["To the New York Committee for the Celebration of the Birthday of Washington" by Daniel Webster (February 20, 1851)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_To_the_New_York_Committee_for_the_Celebration_of_the_Birthday_of_Washington_by_Daniel_Webster_February_20_1851 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 09:21:25 EST]]> /_A_Proclamation_by_the_President_of_the_United_States_February_18_1851 Tue, 28 Aug 2012 13:09:50 EST <![CDATA["A Proclamation by the President of the United States" (February 18, 1851)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Proclamation_by_the_President_of_the_United_States_February_18_1851 Tue, 28 Aug 2012 13:09:50 EST]]> /_Uncle_Gabriel Thu, 23 Aug 2012 11:38:29 EST <![CDATA["Uncle Gabriel"]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Uncle_Gabriel Thu, 23 Aug 2012 11:38:29 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_the_several_laws_concerning_slaves_1806 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 12:38:21 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend the several laws concerning slaves" (1806)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_the_several_laws_concerning_slaves_1806 The following legislation, "An ACT to amend the several laws concerning slaves," was passed by the General Assembly on January 25, 1806, and prohibits the importation of slaves to Virginia and requires that any freed slaves leave the state within twelve months.
Tue, 31 Jul 2012 12:38:21 EST]]>
/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_September_17_1831 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:38:39 EST <![CDATA["Gabriel's Defeat" (September 17, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_September_17_1831 In "Gabriel's Defeat," published on September 17, 1831, the editors of the Liberator reprint a romanticized and inaccurate account of Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800) that first appeared in the Albany Evening Journal. The context of its publication was the more recent, more successful uprising led by Nat Turner in Southampton County earlier in the year.
Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:38:39 EST]]>
/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_October_21_1831 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 14:49:02 EST <![CDATA["Gabriel's Defeat" (October 21, 1831)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_October_21_1831 In "Gabriel's Defeat," published on October 21, 1831, the editors of the Richmond Enquirer seek to correct the facts in an article of the same name published in the Albany Evening Journal. The subject is Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), although the context was the more recent, more successful uprising led by Nat Turner in Southampton County earlier in the year.
Mon, 16 Jul 2012 14:49:02 EST]]>
/_Nottoway_Indians_from_Gentleman_s_Magazine_1821 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:31:08 EST <![CDATA["Nottoway Indians" from Gentleman's Magazine (1821)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Nottoway_Indians_from_Gentleman_s_Magazine_1821 In this short dispatch from London's Gentleman's Magazine, originally printed in 1821, an anonymous writer—probably John Wood, a mathematics professor at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg—recounts his visit to a community of Nottoway Indians in Southampton County. He mistakenly describes the Nottoways' language as "Powhattan," which is to say Algonquian, and even Celtic; in fact, Wood's word list made its way from Thomas Jefferson to Stephen DuPonceau, who identified it as likely Iroquoian. In his short piece, Wood also comments on the Virginia Indians' religion.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:31:08 EST]]>
/Whig_Party_in_Virginia Tue, 12 Apr 2011 11:51:27 EST <![CDATA[Whig Party in Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Whig_Party_in_Virginia The Whig Party was a political party in Virginia and across the United States that was founded in 1833 in opposition to the policies of U.S. president Andrew Jackson—a Democrat who was criticized for his expansion of executive powers—and in support of states' rights and, eventually, the sectional interests of the South. Whigs, especially in the North, vigorously opposed the Mexican War (1846–1848), a conflict that led to increased sectional friction as the federal government attempted, without great success, to strike a balance between the interests of North and South, free and slave, when admitting the newly captured territory into the Union. By 1856, that friction had destroyed the party, both within the state and nationally, forcing its members to affiliate with different parties dictated largely by their stance on slavery and secession. In the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865), many prominent former Virginia Whig Party members, such as John Minor Botts, were vocal in their resistance to Democratic calls for secession. Other prominent Virginia Whigs included Mexican War heroes Zachary Taylor, who served as U.S. president from 1849 until 1850, and Winfield Scott, who ran unsuccessfully for the office in 1852.
Tue, 12 Apr 2011 11:51:27 EST]]>