Encyclopedia Virginia: Agriculture http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Lewis_August_17_1799 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:17:02 EST Letter from George Washington to Robert Lewis (August 17, 1799) http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Lewis_August_17_1799 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:17:02 EST]]> /Rolfe_John_d_1622 Fri, 21 Sep 2018 10:26:44 EST <![CDATA[Rolfe, John (d. 1622)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rolfe_John_d_1622 John Rolfe served as secretary and recorder general of Virginia (1614–1619) and as a member of the governor's Council (1614–1622). He is best known for having married Pocahontas in 1614 and for being the first to cultivate marketable tobacco in Virginia. Joined by his first wife, whose name is unknown, Rolfe sailed on the Sea Venture, a Virginia-bound ship that wrecked off the islands of Bermuda in 1609. There his wife gave birth to a daughter, but mother and child soon died. In Virginia, Rolfe turned to experimenting with tobacco, a plant first brought to England from Florida. The Virginia Indians planted a variety that was harsh to English smokers, so Rolfe developed a Spanish West Indies seed, Nicotiana tabacum, that became profitable and, indeed, transformed the colony's economy. In 1614, Rolfe married Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco. The marriage helped bring an end to the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), but Pocahontas died in 1617 while visiting England with Rolfe and their son, Thomas. While in England, Rolfe penned A True Relation of the state of Virginia Lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May Last 1616 (1617), promoting the interests of the Virginia Company of London. Back in Virginia, he married Joane Peirce about 1619 and had a daughter, Elizabeth. He died in 1622.
Fri, 21 Sep 2018 10:26:44 EST]]>
/Randolph_Thomas_Mann_1768-1828 Fri, 25 May 2018 10:04:27 EST <![CDATA[Randolph, Thomas Mann (1768–1828)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Randolph_Thomas_Mann_1768-1828 Thomas Mann Randolph was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1803–1807) and a three-term governor (1819–1822). He also served in the Senate of Virginia (1793–1794) and the House of Delegates (1819–1820, 1823–1825). Born at the family plantation in Goochland County and educated in Virginia and Scotland, Randolph married Martha Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson's eldest daughter, and they had eleven surviving children, including Thomas Jefferson Randolph and George Wythe Randolph. The family lived at Monticello for much of the time, with Randolph managing his own and Jefferson's properties while Jefferson was in Washington, D.C. In the meantime, Randolph served two terms in Congress, as an infantry colonel during the War of 1812, and as a founding member of the Agricultural Society of Albemarle. He became governor in 1819 and supported transportation infrastructure and the gradual emancipation and forced emigration of enslaved people to Liberia. While in Congress he nearly fought a duel with his cousin John Randolph of Roanoke. While governor he publicly fought with the Council of State and defended himself against accusations of being drunk on the job. And, in his later years, financial difficulties and his drinking caused conflicts with and a separation from his family. He died at Monticello in 1828
Fri, 25 May 2018 10:04:27 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Richard_Richardson_February_17_1800 Thu, 17 May 2018 17:04:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Richard Richardson (February 17, 1800)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Richard_Richardson_February_17_1800 Thu, 17 May 2018 17:04:35 EST]]> /Colored_Farmers_Alliance_and_Cooperative_Union_of_Virginia_The Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:55:39 EST <![CDATA[Colored Farmers' Alliance and Cooperative Union of Virginia, The]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Farmers_Alliance_and_Cooperative_Union_of_Virginia_The The Colored Farmers' Alliance and Cooperative Union was probably the largest organization of African Americans in nineteenth-century Virginia other than the loose associations of Baptist churches. It was also one of the shortest-lived. The alliance was founded in 1890 and collapsed in 1892, a decade after the brief successes of the biracial Readjuster Party that had united voters of both races and diverse political allegiances. The alliance came into being under the auspices of the Colored Farmers' Alliance and Cooperative Union that had been founded in Texas in 1886, a counterpart to the National Farmers' Alliance, which organized white farmers in the Great Plains and the Midwest, and the all-white Southern Farmers' Alliance. The Virginia group elected Joseph J. Rogers, a white alliance official from Norfolk, as president, and the Colored Farmers' Alliance flourished during 1891, enrolling as many as 20,000 members. At its 1891 convention, however, the group unanimously elected William H. Warwick, an African American, its president in place of the absent Rogers, a move Rogers publicly attacked. The resulting controversy, combined with the group's reluctance to support either of the major parties, led to the alliance's end.
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:55:39 EST]]>
/Barbour_B_Johnson_1821-1894 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:39:25 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, B. Johnson (1821–1894)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_B_Johnson_1821-1894 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:39:25 EST]]> /Barbour_James_1775-1842 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:59:53 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, James (1775–1842)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_James_1775-1842 James Barbour was Speaker of the House of Delegates (1809–1812), the governor of Virginia (1812–1814), a member of the U.S. Senate (1815–1825) and its president pro tempore (1819), and the secretary of war (1825–1828) and minister plenipotentiary to Great Britain (1828–1829) in the administration of President John Quincy Adams. Born in Orange County, he read law in Richmond and married his first cousin, Lucy Maria Johnson. (Barbour's younger brother, Philip Pendleton Barbour, married Johnson's sister.) As a member of the General Assembly, Barbour was a states'-rights conservative, but that changed over time. He became governor after George William Smith died in the Richmond Theatre fire, and his management of state affairs during the War of 1812 made him more appreciative of the need for a strong executive. In the U.S. Senate Barbour supported a federal bank and federally financed internal improvements and served in Adams's Federalist administration that was loudly opposed by many Jeffersonian Virginians, including Barbour's own brother, then in the U.S. House of Representatives. After the election of Andrew Jackson, Barbour retired to his estate, Barboursville, where he focused on innovative farming techniques. He helped to organize the Whig Party in Virginia in opposition to Jackson's policies. He died in 1842.
Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:59:53 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Gardening Wed, 26 Oct 2016 17:11:11 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Gardening]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Gardening Thomas Jefferson's interest in gardening arose from a passionate curiosity about the natural world. From his childhood home at Shadwell, where in his early twenties Jefferson recorded that 2,500 pea seeds would fill a pint jar, until 1825, when at the age of eighty-two he sought and later received from the former governor of Ohio seeds of giant cucumbers, Jefferson had an unrelenting enthusiasm for natural history and horticulture that was expressed in his Garden Book. Sixty-six pages long, bound in leather, and residing today at the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Garden Book is also a reflection of Jefferson's Enlightenment ethic. Although he also displayed his love of gardening, food, and wine during his political life in Paris, Philadelphia, and Washington, and at his retirement retreat at Poplar Forest, Jefferson's lifelong home at Monticello became his experimental horticultural laboratory as well as a natural canvas on which to indulge his interest in landscape design, whether sketching plans for garden temples, planting groves of native and introduced species of plants, or composing dreamy visions for classical grottoes around natural mountain springs.
Wed, 26 Oct 2016 17:11:11 EST]]>
/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST <![CDATA["On the Beauty and Fertility of America"; chapter 14 of A Huguenot Exile in Virginia by Durand de Dauphiné (1687)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST]]> /Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, John Hartwell (1780–1866)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 John Hartwell Cocke was a farmer whose plantation, Bremo, in Fluvanna County, was both architecturally and scientifically innovative. He also was a reformer who advocated temperance, the end of tobacco production in central Virginia, and the colonization of the state's slaves. Closely involved with the founding of the University of Virginia, he served on the school's board of visitors from 1819 until 1856. Born in Surry County, Cocke inherited Bremo and moved to the estate in 1809. There he worked out new methods of scientific farming and helped to found the Agricultural Society of Albemarle. He designed, or helped to design, various parts of Bremo, as well as buildings elsewhere in Fluvanna County. After the death of his first wife in 1816, Cocke embraced evangelical Christianity, which informed his work on behalf of temperance causes—he served as president of state and national temperance unions—and against the cultivation of tobacco. Despite owning slaves himself, he thought slavery to be against God's will and argued that removing African Americans to Africa was the best solution to the institution's various evils. Cocke's opposition to abolitionism and his support of the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) caused his views to become pro-slavery over time. He died at Bremo in 1866.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST]]>
/Cocke_Philip_St_George_1809-1861 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:35:28 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, Philip St. George (1809–1861)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_Philip_St_George_1809-1861 Philip St. George Cocke was a wealthy plantation owner in Powhatan County and in Mississippi, who accumulated hundreds of slaves and thousands of acres of land. He became a leading advocate of agricultural interests, serving as president of the Virginia State Agricultural Society from 1853 to 1856, and promoting agricultural education. Cocke served as a lieutenant in the United States Army during the South Carolina Nullification Crisis in 1832, and in 1860, organized a cavalry troop in response to John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry. When volunteers were combined into the Confederate army following the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), Cocke's rank was reduced from brigadier general to colonel. He took offense and later complained bitterly when Confederate general Pierre G. T. Beauregard did not praise him enough during the First Battle of Manassas (1861). In a state of despondency and mental anguish over what he regarded as poor treatment by General Robert E. Lee and others, he committed suicide on December 26, 1861.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:35:28 EST]]>
/Davis_Westmoreland_1859-1942 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:37:26 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Westmoreland (1859–1942)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Westmoreland_1859-1942 Westmoreland Davis was a lawyer and agriculturist who served as governor of Virginia from 1918 to 1922. Born abroad, his family moved to Richmond when he was still young and he attended the Virginia Military Institute and the University of Virginia before studying law in New York. He practiced there until 1903, when he purchased Morven Park, a large estate in Loudoun County. There he studied farming, lobbied on behalf of agricultural groups, and published the Southern Planter magazine from 1912 until his death. Despite lacking experience in electoral politics, Davis won election as governor in 1917, as a Democrat. He presided over the creation of a state highway system and negotiated a truce between union and non-union coal miners in southwestern Virginia. He identified with the Progressive movement and distrusted the Democratic machine run by Thomas Staples Martin, Claude A. Swanson, and, later, Harry F. Byrd Sr. He attempted to break the organization by running against Swanson for the U.S. Senate but lost, and later campaigned against the poll tax which was, in effect, campaigning against the power of the Byrd Organization. Davis died in 1942.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:37:26 EST]]>
/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Daniels, Edward D. (1828–1916)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Edward D. Daniels was an agricultural reformer, newspaper editor, and an active member of the Republican Party. The Massachusetts-born Daniels worked as a geologist in Wisconsin, helped mount expeditions to establish abolitionist colonies in Kansas, served in the U.S. Army, and was involved in manufacturing in the Midwest before settling in Virginia in 1868, at his doctor's recommendation. That same year he bought Gunston Hall, the onetime home of George Mason, and tried to transform the plantation into a cooperative community of independent farmers and artisans. He hired African American laborers, instructed them in scientific farming techniques, and paid them relatively high wages. The venture was not profitable, however, and he sold the property in 1891, retaining a small piece of land for himself. Daniels extended his ambitions for reform into politics: he edited and published the Richmond Evening State Journal in support of the Republican Party, twice ran for office (and was twice defeated), and supported the nascent Readjusters. Daniels's financial troubles often thwarted his reform efforts, but a primary school for black children that he helped found survived into the 1920s. He died at his farm near Gunston Hall in 1916 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Anthony_Whitting_to_George_Washington_January_16_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:37:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Anthony Whitting to George Washington (January 16, 1793)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Anthony_Whitting_to_George_Washington_January_16_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:37:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_23_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:34:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (December 23, 1793)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_23_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:34:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_January_20_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:28:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (January 20, 1793)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_January_20_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:28:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_May_19_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:26:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (May 19, 1793)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_May_19_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:26:18 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_March_30_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:24:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (March 30, 1794)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_March_30_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:24:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_January_26_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:23:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (January 26, 1794)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_January_26_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:23:20 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_December_23_1792 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:21:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (December 23, 1792)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_December_23_1792 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:21:17 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_18_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:19:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (December 18, 1793)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_18_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:19:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Hancock_December_31_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:11:53 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Hancock (December 31, 1775)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Hancock_December_31_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:11:53 EST]]> /Enclosure_Washington_s_Plans_for_His_River_Union_and_Muddy_Hole_Farms_December_10_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:12:10 EST <![CDATA[Enclosure: Washington's Plans for His River, Union, and Muddy Hole Farms (December 10, 1799)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Enclosure_Washington_s_Plans_for_His_River_Union_and_Muddy_Hole_Farms_December_10_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:12:10 EST]]> /Circular_to_William_Stuart_Hiland_Crow_and_Henry_McCoy_by_George_Washington_July_14_1793 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:50:24 EST <![CDATA[Circular to William Stuart, Hiland Crow, and Henry McCoy by George Washington (July 14, 1793)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Circular_to_William_Stuart_Hiland_Crow_and_Henry_McCoy_by_George_Washington_July_14_1793 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:50:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_August_30_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:39:38 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Hill to George Washington (August 30, 1772)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_August_30_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:39:38 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_December_13_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:36:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Hill to George Washington (December 13, 1772)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_December_13_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:36:46 EST]]> /An_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_George_Washington_January_28-31_1760 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:25:49 EST <![CDATA[An excerpt from the diary of George Washington (January 28–31, 1760)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_George_Washington_January_28-31_1760 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:25:49 EST]]> /Late_Woodland_Period_AD_900-1650 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:06:23 EST <![CDATA[Late Woodland Period (AD 900–1650)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Late_Woodland_Period_AD_900-1650 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:06:23 EST]]> /Domesticated_Plants_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society_Uses_of Fri, 30 May 2014 13:26:46 EST <![CDATA[Plants in Early Virginia Indian Society, Domesticated]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Domesticated_Plants_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society_Uses_of Virginia Indians began domesticating plants to be used as a food source following the Ice Age. As the climate warmed, their lives became less nomadic and the conditions improved for husbanding certain plants—sunflower, knotweed, and little barley at first, and then the so-called three sisters of maize, beans, and squash. Eastern North America is one of ten sites in the world where independent plant domestication occurred, but because of other abundant food sources in the Chesapeake Bay area, maize, or corn, was not widespread until as late as AD 1100. Plant domestication coincided with increasing populations, improved weapons technology, and more complex social and political systems. Already a high-status food among the Indians, maize was held in particularly high regard by the Jamestown colonists, who had never seen it before. Scholars disagree how much of the Indian diet it comprised, but it seems clear that only the highest-ranking of the Powhatan Indians of Tsenacomoco ate domesticated plants year-round.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:26:46 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_regulating_conveyances_1785 Sat, 17 May 2014 15:09:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for regulating conveyances" (1785)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_regulating_conveyances_1785 Sat, 17 May 2014 15:09:10 EST]]> /Query_XIX_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:51:09 EST <![CDATA[Query XIX; an excerpt from Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson (1784)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Query_XIX_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:51:09 EST]]> /Ruffin_Edmund_1794-1865 Sat, 04 Jan 2014 17:08:40 EST <![CDATA[Ruffin, Edmund (1794–1865)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffin_Edmund_1794-1865 Edmund Ruffin was a prominent Southern nationalist, noted agriculturalist, writer and essayist, and Virginia state senator (1823–1827). After dropping out of college and serving briefly in the Virginia militia during the War of 1812, Ruffin began a long career farming along the James River and studying the soil. He published the results of his experiments and founded a journal, the Farmers' Register, in 1833. During these years, Ruffin's politics also became radicalized, first around banking issues, and then around states' rights, slavery, and secession. After John Brown's failed raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859, Ruffin began speaking out against what he considered to be Northern aggression, and he even joined cadets from the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington so he could attend Brown's execution. Ruffin continued to agitate for secession during the United States presidential election of 1860, and he is erroneously credited with firing the first shot on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, starting the American Civil War (1861–1865). A popular hero in the South, Ruffin nevertheless suffered financial setbacks during the war, as well as declining health, and in 1865, following the Confederates' defeat, he killed himself.
Sat, 04 Jan 2014 17:08:40 EST]]>
/Sandy_Thomas_Oldham_1857-1919 Sat, 04 Jan 2014 16:41:15 EST <![CDATA[Sandy, T. O. (1857–1919)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sandy_Thomas_Oldham_1857-1919 T. O. Sandy was Virginia's earliest agricultural extension agent. A farmer, scientist, and teacher, he opened the state's first extension office in Burkeville in 1907, serving the residents in surrounding counties with practical agricultural advice. In 1914, Virginia Polytechnic Institute (now Virginia Tech) in Blacksburg assumed the administration of the statewide program. Sandy, who had briefly attended Virginia Tech, coordinated Virginia's extension efforts until his retirement in 1917. During Sandy's tenure as extension agent, farming practices and attitudes toward scientific agriculture in Virginia significantly improved.
Sat, 04 Jan 2014 16:41:15 EST]]>
/_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST <![CDATA["An Act declaring tenants of lands or slaves in taille to hold the same in fee simple" (1776)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Worthington_November_29_1825 Wed, 30 Jan 2013 09:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Worthington (November 29, 1825)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Worthington_November_29_1825 Wed, 30 Jan 2013 09:39:07 EST]]> /Tobacco_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 29 Jan 2013 14:14:00 EST <![CDATA[Tobacco in Colonial Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tobacco_in_Colonial_Virginia Tobacco was colonial Virginia's most successful cash crop. The tobacco that the first English settlers encountered in Virginia—the Virginia Indians' Nicotiana rustica—tasted dark and bitter to the English palate; it was John Rolfe who in 1612 obtained Spanish seeds, or Nicotiana tabacum, from the Orinoco River valley—seeds that, when planted in the relatively rich bottomland of the James River, produced a milder, yet still dark leaf that soon became the European standard. Over the next 160 years, tobacco production spread from the Tidewater area to the Blue Ridge Mountains, especially dominating the agriculture of the Chesapeake region. Beginning in 1619 the General Assembly put in place requirements for the inspection of tobacco and mandated the creation of port towns and warehouses. This system assisted in the development of major settlements at Norfolk, Alexandria, and Richmond. Tobacco formed the basis of the colony's economy: it was used to purchase the indentured servants and slaves to cultivate it, to pay local taxes and tithes, and to buy manufactured goods from England. Promissory notes payable in tobacco were even used as currency, with the cost of almost every commodity, from servants to wives, given in pounds of tobacco. Large planters usually shipped their tobacco directly to England, where consignment agents sold it in exchange for a cut of the profits, while smaller planters worked with local agents who bought their tobacco and supplied them with manufactured goods. In the mid-seventeenth century, overproduction and shipping disruptions related to a series of British wars caused the price of tobacco to fluctuate wildly. Prices stabilized again in the 1740s and 1750s, but the financial standings of small and large planters alike deteriorated throughout the 1760s and into the 1770s. By the advent of the American Revolution (1775–1783), some planters had switched to growing food crops, particularly wheat; many more began to farm these crops to support the war effort. In the first year of fighting, tobacco production in Virginia dropped to less than 25 percent of its annual prewar output.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 14:14:00 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Charles_Willson_Peale_August_20_1811 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 14:01:29 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Charles Willson Peale (August 20, 1811)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Charles_Willson_Peale_August_20_1811 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 14:01:29 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_Thomas_Jefferson_s_Garden_Book_1769 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:41:06 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book (1769)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_Thomas_Jefferson_s_Garden_Book_1769 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:41:06 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Page_May_4_1786 Wed, 05 Dec 2012 13:29:42 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Page (May 4, 1786)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Page_May_4_1786 Wed, 05 Dec 2012 13:29:42 EST]]> /_Monticello_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:13:57 EST <![CDATA["Monticello"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Monticello_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:13:57 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Pory_to_Sir_Dudley_Carleton_1619 Fri, 18 May 2012 16:51:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Pory to Sir Dudley Carleton (1619)]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Pory_to_Sir_Dudley_Carleton_1619 In this letter to the English aristocrat Sir Dudley Carleton, John Pory describes events in the Virginia colony, including the arrival of two ships containing the colony's first Africans and the introduction of a saleable grade of tobacco. Some spelling has been updated.
Fri, 18 May 2012 16:51:13 EST]]>
/Backcountry_Frontier_of_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 31 Jan 2012 16:34:45 EST <![CDATA[Backcountry Frontier of Colonial Virginia]]> http://staging.encyclopediavirginia.org/Backcountry_Frontier_of_Colonial_Virginia The backcountry frontier of colonial Virginia reached westward from the Blue Ridge Mountains to the farthest extent of Virginia settlement in the eighteenth century. By royal charter, the extreme western boundaries of Virginia at this time extended to the Pacific Ocean, but the terms "backcountry" or "back settlements" specifically refer to new settlements in the eastern Appalachian Mountains—most notably in the Shenandoah Valley—that began taking shape in the 1720s. This term was commonly used in the colonial era, when "frontier" referred more specifically to national boundaries. In the 1720s and 1730s, British and colonial authorities encouraged settlement of the backcountry, particularly by non-English Protestant immigrants whose small-farm, non-slave communities might create a buffer against Indian attacks and French expansion while deterring runaway slaves seeking to establish independent colonies in the Appalachians. Due to its social, economic, political, and cultural distinctiveness, the backcountry frontier as a region played a significant role in the eighteenth-century history of Virginia and in the writings of historians about the influence of Virginia's colonial period on the later history of the state and the nation. By the end of the eighteenth century, the backcountry had become a successful model for the development of mixed-farm, market-town settlements on new frontiers as Americans overspread the trans-Appalachian west.
Tue, 31 Jan 2012 16:34:45 EST]]>